According to Duffy (2004) it is important for the mentor to facilitate learning needs and assessment by giving the student the opportunity to reflect on their learning needs and assess themselves. It is also arguable that it is important for a student to identify their own learning needs and self-assessment but the mentor needs to adhere to assessment process in order to provide fair and accurate assessment (Walsh 2014). The most important role of a mentor is to assess the progress of a student accurately and identify the learning needs and problems which the student is encountering on a placement at an early stage. (Philips et al 2000). To assess accurately and holistically a mentor should be able to assess the student’s competency through measurable assessment tools and to do assessment process accurately (Embo et al 2015).
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
To help students choose, prepare for, enter upon and progress in a career. To help the students in vocational development. To help students make the best possible adjustments to the situations in the school as well as in the home. 33 To supplement the efforts of home. To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the deficient use of man-power.
Meaning of Guidance Guidance is a process of helping an individual to gain knowledge and skills to adjust to the environment at every stage of their lives starting from the birth of a child and continues till his/her death. This knowledge and skills helps individual realize his /her full potential by making ethical decision in different situation either in education or relationships to reach their goal and plan for a successful future. Teachers, advisors, tutors, deans and parents guidance are the institution can help individual develop his or her maximum potentials through lifelong learning situations. Meaning of Counseling Counseling is the service offered by the professional counselor to assist the individual who is undergoing a problem
Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Pedagogy is important because it demonstrate how the teaching and learning occurs. Students must build up their own understandings through teachers’ and their own considered learning experiences. Teacher’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge are vital to good teaching and student understanding (Buchmann, 1982, 1983; Tobin & Garnett, 1988). In Shulman's theoretical framework, teachers need to master two types of knowledge: content and knowledge of the curricular development. Teacher must integrate teaching strategies that will help students to assimilate knowledge such as supportive classroom environment, recognition of difference and connectedness to the wider world.
Therefore, students ' expectancies for success and the value they have for succeeding are important determinants of their motivation to perform different achievement tasks. Children 's expectancies and values themselves are most directly determined by teachers so helping students to set reasonable achievement tasks, getting them to attribute success to effort, establishing a warm and supportive classroom climate are the important factors. Student will tend to behave what the teacher expects. ( Sustaining effect). Otherwise, no motivated activity occurs.
What more! Create learning opportunities and allow space for individual approaches to learning. Most importantly in an effective teaching, teacher act as a facilitator and allows students to take responsibilities for their own learning but not indoctrinating knowledge to the students head. Teachers play a vital role in teaching and learning that enhance students to become independent and critical thinkers while modeling life-long learners. In addition, the role of a teacher is to reach the heart and mind of the children, expand their intellect and knowledge.
Mediation in learning entails teachers’ competence to: address the diverse needs of learners, including those with barriers to learning; construct learning environments that are appropriately contextualized and inspirational, communicate effectively, showing recognition of, and respect for differences in others, this is according to According to the Department of Education (DoE, 2000). According to McNeil (1990: 314), Mediation refers to the interpretative process by which people make sense of or create meaning from experience. From these different definitions it is clear that the educator as a mediator serves as the intermediary between the learners and the learning and has the task of facilitating the learning process. The mediator has the responsibility of steering the learning process and finding ways to arouse curiosity and enthusiasm in learners. If an educator is successfully able to do this they will have learners who are eager to learn and this can be measured by learner’s engagement in the learning process.
Therefor; reflective teaching approach may help to foster the learning of the students, and reflective teaching approach is not only for the students it also help for the teacher to further improve their teaching. Reflection help both student and teacher to improve their critical thinking skills. According to John Dewey who is often considered to be the originator of the concept of reflection defines reflective practice as an ‘active persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support in, and the further conclusions to which it tends…’(1993, p. 6). Reflection is a continuous process, Statement of the