[1-3] In halogen bonding, it is a halogen atom X that is shared between a donor R and an acceptor Y. Thus the two forms of interaction can be illustrated by: HB : R_H…Y XB : R_X…Y Because of their high electronegativity; halogen atoms in halo-organics are classically considered as sites of high
Abastract The intermolecular interactions between halo-cyclopropenone derivatives (HC3OX;X= F, Cl, Br and I) and hypohalous acids (HOY; Y=F, Cl, Br and I) were investigated using the MP2 method with aug–cc-pVTZ basis set. Three types of complexes are forming by:1) hydrogen bond, 2) both hydrogen and halogen bonds, 3) halogen bond interactions. The results indicated that interactions in type 1 complexes are stronger than those in types 2 and 3. The H–O bonds show red shifts with complex formation in types 1 and 2, in which they are more considerable for type 1 complexes. The O–Y bonds display red shifts in the type 3 and blue shift in the type 2 complexes.
There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins. R groups determine the chemical properties of the amino acids. The simplest amino acids have hydrocarbons as side chains which are neutral and non-polar or hydrophobic. They are not soluble in water. Amino acids with a polar R group are neutral and polar or hydrophilic.
When a vast number of water molecules are mixing freely in the liquid form, the positive poles are attracted to the negative poles by what amounts to static electricity. This electrostatic attraction is termed a hydrogen bond. It is about 20 times weaker than the H – O bonds within any one water molecule, but still gives rise to considerable, transient adhesion, which packs the water molecules closely together in the liquid state. In contrast, as the temperature falls below about 4 ° C and ice begins to form, the hydrogen bonds between the molecules become longer lived. They eventually settle into a rigid, rather open framework, comprising a stack of tetrahedrons, in which each oxygen atom is hydrogen-bonded to four surrounding oxygen atoms.
Polar molecules interact through dipole–dipole intermolecular force and hydrogen bonds. Molecular polarity is dependent on the difference in the electro negativity between atoms in a compound. Not all atoms attract electrons with the same force. The amount of "pull" an atom exerts on its electrons
Different amines produce different colors. For example, α-amino acids produce a blue-purple product while secondary amines like Proline produce a yellow-orange product (Hunt, n.d.). In the Ninhydrin Test, the electron deficient polar carbonyl carbon is attacked by the nucleophilic nitrogen on the amino acid. This combines the ninhydrin to the amino acid molecule temporarily. Until the carbon originally attacked is protonated and leaves in water form, the structure stays rearranged.
Carbohydrates, or saccharides, consist of a) sugars and starches, which provide energy for humans and animals, and b) cellulose which make up numerous plant structures. Carbs, for short, have gotten to be both a gift and a burden, as the modern food production process has changed the way we consume them on a daily basis. There are two sorts of carbohydrates, simple sugars, or monosaccharides and complex sugars, or polysaccharides. Sugars are diverse, and abundant in plants, where they serve a great number of functions. The simplest of sugars consist of 3 to 7 carbon molecules.
It contains at least 10 chromosomes based on PFGE and telomere analysis (Zainuddin, N., personal communication, 2011). However, a much conclusive remark on the total chromosome numbers, and the ploidy state of G. antarctica PI12 is yet to be
Medium and long-chain fatty acids, mainly 18:0 is desaturated in mammary gland forming monosaturated acids. Triacylglycerols ( TAG’s) : Triacylglycerols (TAG’s) are synthesized from more than 400 different fatty acids which makes milk fat the most complex (Parodi, 2004). Many acids are present in trace quantities and only 16 acids are present at 1% or higher depending on genetic factors, stage of lactation, dietary fats and seasonal and regional effects. Triacylglycerol with positions are visualized below (Christie,
There are compounds of carbon and hydrogen, the aliphatic hydrocarbons, in which the carbon atoms are joined by one, two or three bonds forming chains: for example, the bond is simple in ethane (CH3-CH3), double in ethylene (CH2 = CH2) and triple in acetylene (CHΞCH). These three are gases, but when the number of atoms (and therefore the atomic mass) increases, liquids (such as gasoline) and even solids (such as paraffin) appear. In molecules with double and triple bonds, there are delocalized electrons that give them a special