Therefore, rubric can be used for summative assessment or formative assessment. Gipps & James, (1998) stated “we need to consider not only the teaching and learning activities, but also the assessment tasks”. Moreover, summative assessment are beneficial to many group of people such as teachers, school, parents and students. Teachers or schools can use these assessments to identify strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and evaluate the standard of students.
Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Student assessment, whether by standardized tests or classroom-based measures, is a foundation of effective teaching and learning. At various stages during their learning, students may need or want to be tested on their ability in the English language. Summative assessments, for example, are regarded as powerful devices for influencing what happens in schools and classrooms, and as such, assessment studies are regularly carried out to measure the strengths and weaknesses of students. Results from summative assessments, along with other measures of achievement, are regularly used to determine whether students can advance to the next grade, and to evaluate the quality of schools and the professors who work in them. (Harmer, 1998) A learner’s knowledge, ability and skills can be measured in various ways, depending on what it is to be assessed.
Testing has now become an essential part of instruction and learning. Tests are regarded as significant because they render a more standardized procedure for gathering and evaluating relevant data, compared to usual techniques like observation and interview. A test has been defined as a measurement device or technique used to quantify behavior or aid in the understanding and prediction of behavior (Kaplan & Saccuzo, 2009a). Accordingly, the proper utilization of tests is aimed towards the reinforcement of school organization, improving instruction, and assisting students in their educational progress and personality fulfillment. Commonly, people confuse the terms testing and assessment.
It is a process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It can be used to practice, plan curriculum, and to reflect on teachers teaching method. It also help us to provide information to parents, children and also administrators. Different ways of assessment are being used to allow the teacher to decide which instructional strategies are essential and which need to be changed. Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment.
According to the American Psychological Association ,” intelligence is theability to understand complex ideas, to adapt eﬀectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.” The issue of intelligence has made over the years a lot of problems in specifying if it is innate or acquired, in measuring and determining a person’s intelligence, and in determining what variables can determine whether a person is intelligence or not . These days schools adopt a grading system where the student is subjected to exams in order to assess his academic performance …Grades are very important because they are the reflection of the students’ performance during the reporting
These may involve strategies such as submission of draft and details of references used, incorporating formative feedback, and compulsory discussion with teacher during lessons. Teachers have a professional responsibility to offer a range and balance of assessment tasks under varying conditions that make assessments authentic. When access to resources (e.g. Internet, teaching staff and peers) is open, teachers need to consider how they will manage student work outside their interaction, monitor students as they progress, and determine whether students have colluded with others while developing answers (Miller, et al., 2011). A disproportionate, heavier, weighting for an assessment may promote dishonesty as collusion or plagiarism renders bigger returns, if not detected.
It also raises learners’ awareness about their current abilities and achievements. The authors further add that FA can be a diagnostic tool for students, which helps them to recognize their weaknesses, solve their problems, and make realistic decisions. Additionally, assessment lets students know how they are making progress and gives teachers feedback on their teaching. According to Young and Kim (2010), “using assessment and other data to improve instruction is a powerful proposition” (p. 28). McMillan (2007) also believes FA provides students with ongoing corrective feedback, improves learning, and encourages student involvement.
Introduction The struggle of several students in order to achieve their educational goals, created the need for new, simple educational practices which would enable teachers to test and evaluate the students’ performance. Therefore, Deno (1985) introduced the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) system which screens students’ performance, evaluates their progress and identifies those being at risk of failing. It is argued that CBM provides accurate information on the students’ performance (Shinn, 1989). Furthermore, it is considered an efficient method for academic assessment beacuse it enables teachers to make important decisions and an efficient tool for assessing English language learners’ reading skills (Wiley & Deno, 2005), which is very useful within the framework of the present study. A person’s reading skills are crucial in his academic life success.
Teachers are their prime source of support. Students rely on their teachers to give them feedback about the things they are doing well and how they might improve in other areas. The school assessment program provides a major source of information on how successfully students are performing in their courses. The information is valuable for both the student and the teacher. Feedback can provide students with information about strengths and weaknesses of responses, the outcomes achieved and students’ performance in relation to standards and to other students.