Aquaculture In Fish

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REPRODUCTION
Introduction

In aquaculture nutrition lipid, protein, fatty acids, vitamin E and C and carotenoids influencing various reproduction process such as fertilization, larval development and fecundity (Izquierdo et al., 2001). Moreover, in contrast to the culture of edible fish, information on the dietary requirements and feeding ornamental fish is limited (Langer, 2011). Nutrition has an important influence on growth and reproductive potential of aquarium fish, and various live feeds have been used for fish rearing. Hormones, nutrient mixture, antibiotics, chemotherapeutants and herbal products are used as nutrient supplements for brood stock of ornamental fish. But there are major limitations to the general use of these agents such
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Currently, commercial products are available in liquid or powder presentations and various technologies have been developed for improvement. Knowledge of probiotics has increased; currently it is known that these microorganisms have an antimicrobial effect through modifying the intestinal microbiota, secreting antibacterial substances (bacteriocins and organic acids), competing with pathogens to prevent their adhesion to the intestine, competing for nutrients necessary for pathogen survival, and producing an antitoxin effect. Probiotic bacteria used as dietary additives seem to offer an attractive choice including overall health benefits to the host organism (Lombardo et al., 2011). Dharmaraj and Dhevendran (2010) evaluated the efficacy of Streptomyces as a probiotic feed for the growth of ornamental fish, Xiphophorus helleri. Hernandez et al. (2010) analyzed the effects of the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus casei on the growth, and protein content of skin mucus and stress resistance of juveniles of the Porthole live bearer Poecilia gracilis (Poecilidae). A study was conducted to examine the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, as a feed additive, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) fecundity (Gioacchini et al., 2010). Effect of diet (fatty acid and protein) content during spawning season on fertility, eggs and larvae quality of common porgy was…show more content…
Before feeding the experimental feed the initial weight of all the fishes were noted. Fishes were divided into four and the groups were fed with different concentrations of 0.2 (T1), 0.4 (T2) and 0.6 (T3) and 0.8 gm (T4) of probiotic supplemented feeds during the experimental period (Table 1). The experimental feeds were given to the fishes twice a day and the control group was also maintained. The fish were fed with feed at 5% of their body weight daily into two split doses throughout the experimental period. To prevent the water quality, excess feed should be avoided and also the unutilized feed and fecal matter were collected before each morning and water was changed once in every two

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