Unlike many social-scientific studies of social interaction that use research methodologies that elucidate what people say they do (e.g., interviews, focus groups, surveys), CA is a methodology that investigates what people actually do, with analysts examining the details of recordings of talk and other conduct of participants in naturally occurring interaction. Conversation analytic studies use naturalistic data, i.e., non-experimental data that wasn’t set up for the purposes of the research and would have occurred without the researchers’ instigation (ten Have, 2007). Hence, I particularly employed participant observation techniques using audio recording to collect the data to be able to answer my research question. As such, the opening event of the workshop activity comprising six episodes - greetings, prayer, welcome, introductions, workshop program overview and first workshop instructions – was recorded and later on transcribed using the notational convention developed by Jefferson (2004). In this mini-study, the data set that was qualitatively analyzed is the textual transcription of the audio recording of the opening event in the workshop activity (see Appendix “A”).
In the book written by R.B. Santos titled ‘Crime analysis with crime mapping’, I am focusing on Chapter 3 which is titled ‘Effectiveness of police in reducing crime and the role of crime analysis’. In this chapter, I will be summarising on the effectiveness of police in preventing and controlling crime, the role of crime analysis and finally on the definition of problem. Weisburd and Braga (2006) stated that American policing have made significant changes and development in both their thinking and practice over the last three (3) decades. These changes are possible due to America’s advance technologies, new and latest perspectives in policing and finally evaluating the already existing practices.
Interaction Analysis: Challenges and Soloutions Interaction analysis refers to an interdisciplinary method for experimentation of the interaction of people with each other and with their surrounding environment. It investigates our activities, verbal and nonverbal interaction, and the use of technologies, recognizing our regular practices and problems and the sources for their solution. It is deeply rooted in the fields like ethnography, sociolinguistics, ethnomethodology, conversation analysis, kinesics, and proxemics. Interaction analysis as a definite method has been differentiated from other kinds of data analyses. Although it is not taught by itself in any university curriculum, there is an increasing number of practitioners doing interaction-analytic
However, this method need not be first hand; the researcher can observe the previously recorded interactions and apply this method to study it. The whole purpose of this type of a method of research is that it gives us clues and hints to the other layers of reality (Interpreting Quality Data; pg 234; Description) However, without any meaning to the words, any type of a research on anyone does not hold significance. The whole point of ethnography is that the researcher gets an insight of how the things work and why people do what they do. The acquired content is the research done on the subject which helps the researchers to understand how people act in a certain social situation(Jane Stokes; Chapter 4; Pg 114). But as mentioned previously, the researchers will fail at relating the subjects’ actions to any social PHENOMENA without knowing the meanings and the history of the cultural
So instead of collecting data by asking people, observational research relies on watching them while they are engaged in their actions, behavior, and/or activities. Depending on the objectives of the study, researchers can choose to observe either the behavior of people or events. An example of research involving people is mall research. It is not uncommon for shopping malls to have "observers" following shoppers in the mall from the time they enter the mall to the time they leave. The goal is to understand how people go about browsing the shopping mall, which stores are visited first and last, how much time is spent in each store, and so on.
The data collected through observation and interview methodology is quite valid and reliable (Walsh & Wigens 2003). Both of these methodologies also assisted me in studying about the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of NAB’s team leader in concern to his position and organization. Both the techniques are effective and inexpensive way of collecting information and finding facts. The subjectivity and biasness is not there with these methods. Section 3 –
Line Intercept Method Brendalyn Basilan, Camille Yvonne Cubar, Kristilynn Saavedra, Carmen Sophia Rubia Introduction The simplest of all ecological sampling techniques, the line-intercept method is usually used by field researchers in determining vegetation composition, cover, and frequency of a study area. This is administered using a long transect line or tape measure starting from a determined fix point or at the visible boundary of a habitat and runs horizontally across the area. Line-intercept method is actually in line with statistics because it is a method of sampling elements in a region where particles or in this case the plants are sampled if a chosen line segment called the “transect”, transects the plant (Kaiser, 1983). Since
It gives the researcher a better understanding of what is happening in the culture and It lends credence to one of the explanations for observation. Note also participate It enables a researcher to collect quantitative and qualitative data through surveys And interviews. 5. Sometimes it is the only way to collect the right data to study
Therefore it calls for understanding of the causes and motivators of organized crime groups in order to reduce the vice. To have a reduction or end of organized crimes there is need for interdisciplinary approaches to recheck the issue. To really understand and solve the issues related to organized crimes, one analyze the problem through, Law, historical, sociological or political perceptive. For instance, from an ethnical perceptive, organized crime in United States can be aligned with high numbers of illegal immigrants. Such groups have a sense of community and trust in themselves, though the feeling of discrimination, vulnerability and isolation pushes them into crime.
This method is mainly used to distinguish the foreground objects from background images. Histogram thresholding and slicing techniques are used to segment the image. If more than two segments are required, the method described above can be extended to use multiple thresholds. If the number of segments is large, a more practical algorithm that minimizes the variances within segments is often used, an iterative algorithm known as K-means clustering. Edge based segmentation: In this technique, detected edges in an image are assumed to represent object boundaries, and they are used to identify these objects.