Theories Of Learning

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• Learning is a lifetime process whereby an individual gains information through attentive reception, processes it mentally, makes sense of it by creating links to his prior knowledge and then applies it. All actions, for example; dealing with the environment around (like people and situations), take place as we are constantly undergoing the learning curve. Therefore, all new learning is connected to previous learning and so, is a result of it.

• It is proved through research that all individuals learn differently. This is because of: External or environmental and Internal or cognitive factors and personal learning styles. Learners’ diverse ethnicity, age, gender, cultural background, past experiences, personalities, intelligence etc., shape
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Many teaching strategies and learning activities address this notion. For example, Problem-based Learning Theory (an amalgamation of Cognitive and Social Constructivist theories, by Piaget (1920) and Vygotsky (1978), respectively), is a hands-on, active learning technique that lets students be independent thinkers and problem-solvers through investigation, where the teacher is a facilitator. Other models which guarantee student engagement include Discovery Learning by Bruner (1961), Experiential Learning by Kolb (1984) and 21st Century Skills. These models provide maximum opportunities for students to experience with materials and resources, collaborate, socialize, analyse and solve problems related to real life. Teachers can employ instruction which is clear, communicate their objectives vividly, design a plan using a variety of strategies and resources, ask questions frequently and effectively and have brain-storming sessions, attention grabbing starters, pre-while-post technology hands-on, debates, role plays, enquiries, case studies, research, multimedia presentations, group work, simulation by audios and videos, games, interactive plenaries, inventories, quizzes etc. These put the students in the centre, demand their attention and hence increase productivity. Hermin and Toth (2006) argued that many individuals become proficient in skills by practising them rather merely being the spectator of the skills, such as listening to teacher’s talk about the skill, reading about the skill or watching others perform the skill. It is clear that the teacher needs to be aware of her students’ predispositions, so she can make them owners of their learning and engage them in tailored activities to achieve her

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