# Problem Posing In Mathematics

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Problem posing is recognized as an important component of mathematics teaching and learning and is considered as a cognitive activity. Compared to problem solving, problem posing occurs less commonly in classroom instruction. During the past 20 years, studies have been conducted to promote the use of problem posing in school mathematical instruction and documented the positive outcomes on students’ knowledge, problem solving abilities, creativity and effects on attitudes and beliefs about mathematics. In this research, we use COMPS model-based word problem instruction combined with “What if Not strategy” to teach word problem posing skills under structured problem posing situations for students with math difficulties. The study uses a single-subject…show more content…
It is expected that the participants will demonstrate increased math performance for both tests when the model-based word problem instruction and “what if strategy” are employed to instruct multiplicative problem posing and solving and that immediate and enduring effects will be noted. Keywords: model-based instruction, What-if-Not, problem posing, problem solving, multiplicative word problem, math disability CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background According to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) (2001), National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards (2000) and Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), all students including students with math difficulties have equal opportunity to access learning resources, take high-stakes state assessments and meet the same high standards as their peers. These educational laws stress higher expectations for all students including students with…show more content…
Problem posing could occur before (pre-solution), during (within-solution) and after problem solving (post-solution). (a) Prior to solve problems, problems can be generated from particular presented stimulus such as a story, a representation or a diagram. (b) During the process of solving problems, students may intentionally change the goals and conditions of the presented problems. This refers to the reformulation of problems as the given math problem or information are transformed or formulated into a new problem during the process of solving problem. (c) After solving a problem, students may apply the experiences and information from the solved problem to a new situation. The new problem may be the extension or modification or totally different from the original. This is similar to Polya’s fourth phrase of problem solving, which is “looking back” (Rosli, 2013). Silver’s problem posing framework implies that students could make connections between what they learned and the new knowledge and create or reformulate new problem throughout the process of solving and posing