Bakhtin emphasises the historical, cultural and social aspects of literary texts and that texts should be read through their context. His work is important, because he argues that events should be “composited, theorised and understood”, not just seen as events (Robinson 2011). Bakhtin’s Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics is seen as one of the most important theories on the novel written in the twentieth century. In Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics, Bakhtin concentrates on the artistic thinking he calls polyphonic. Polyphony refers to the use of multiple voices or multivoicedness.
Dostoyevsky describes himself as, a realist in the highest sense because he has depicted the depths of the human soul. He is very much interested in abnormal and extreme characters and sensational situations, project through a torrent of impassioned dialogue. In this paper an attempt is made to understand the form of writing of Fyodor Dostoyevsky by focusing on the various techniques he used. Dostoyevsky’s high emphasis on the use of psychological realism will be highlighted, as the novel mainly focuses on the various psychological observations. Also, how he tried to manipulate the three areas of literature, Sociology and Psychology in order to become master in literature, will also be discussed.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s classic novel, Crime and Punishment, displays an immense depth of literary devices and elements that function to contribute greatly to the development of the plot of the story. Crime and Punishment is a tale of a prideful, yet disgruntled “scholar” who through his own perceived superiority commits the capital crime of murder in order for a believed greater good. Through the examination of one of the essential passages of the story, we are witness to Dostoyevsky’s incorporation of literary elements like hyperbole, foreshadowing, and the central theme of crime and punishment, and these devices subsequent roles in advancing and emphasizing the themes and plot of the story. The scene depicted by Dostoyevsky involves
Entering the world of literature during the 19th century, Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s Notes from the Underground grants the world a realist piece of writing that opens the minds of its readers even to this day. Setting itself up as a diary for a bitter and isolated man, who remains unidentified, this novella translates to depict the true essence of the “superfluous man.” This concept, highly regarded at the time in Russia, makes its way into the story and Dostoyevsky does an exemplary job incorporating it. Furthermore, he manipulates the concept to his advantage and to express his disagreement with the movement to Westernize Russia. This piece of literature begins with the narrator, dubbed the Underground man, describing himself and his life. The reader can automatically interpret that the narrator is unhappy with himself and questions what could have caused this self-loathing behavior.
The psychological approach to the study of literature has been the most abused approach. The scholars and critics most commonly employed psychological approach as an interpretative tool to enhance their understanding and appreciation of literature. Psychological interpretation offers various ways to understand and appreciate thematic and symbolic mysteries in a given text. There is a great deal of serious literature that can be interpreted using the psychological approach of Freud. Sigmund Freud is considered as the pioneer in the field of Psychological criticism.
Critically examine the philosophical ideas that are expressed in Sartre’s novel Nausea Jean-Paul Sartre was a French Philosopher, novelist and literary critic. He was born on the 21st of June, 1905. During his life, he was one of the important figures in the philosophy of existentialism and also one of the prominent individuals in the 20th century French philosophy and Marxism. Existentialism is a 20th century philosophy which is basically centred on the analysis of existence, freedom and choice. It is the understanding that humans define their purpose in life and try to make coherent decisions although they exist in an irrational universe (Mastin, 2008).
Despite Camus separating himself from existentialism, he impersonated the best-known question pertaining existentialism in the twentieth era, and was awarded as the 1957 Nobel Prize for literature. Later, the Nobel committee became much concerned with Camus’ approach of trying to illuminate the major human problems during that time, hence he was considered as a champion of literature for being an imaginative writer because of his insight through philosophy and the moral truth that made him to be honored by the generation of that period. Through his writing and authoring of his novels, he became more famous, and his philosophical perspectives became useful to all up to date. Defining in his own way, Camus as a philosophical writer conceived his original view of world and
F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway are among the most prominent exponents of literature of the twentieth century. Forming part of the Lost Generation, these authors not only develop similar themes throughout their works, but heavily influenced each other. The Great Gatsby being Fitzgerald’s magnum opus, serves as a prime illustration of the staples of contemporary literature. In the novel The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald, the author depicts himself through a character, Nick Carraway, conforming to other self depiction common in the Lost Generation, such as Hemingway in the Nick Adams stories. Nick Carraway and Nick Adams represent Fitzgerald and Hemingway, both serving as apertures into Fitzgerald’s and Hemingway’s view of the world.
The Joseph cycle from the Book of Genesis was chosen by Mann, the greatest German novelist of the twentieth century as the subject matter for "his 'pyramid'...the great literary monument that he hoped would tower over all the other works for which he is now remembered." The Book of Genesis was arguably also the inspiration for The Tempest, William Shakespeare's great farewell to the stage. Although Shakespeare is generally considered not to have been subjected to or bound by religious rule while as a poet and playwright, his work is rich in Biblical influences and allusions. The narrative forms of writing were best suited to accommodate the wide scope of corporal life in the twentieth century, that unity gave way to a variety of subjects and forms, but this did not mean that the writers again turned their backs on reality. On the contrary, they searched for new forms of expression in order to find an adequate creative presentation of a changed reality with its new problems.
Postmodernism in Urdu Fiction Post Modernism and Modernism: a host-parasite relationship Modernism and Post Modernism have been the two dominant theories in the last fifty odd years and much of the creative writings in all literature have been analyzed and reviewed against the parameters of the two said literary theories. Modernism though surrendered the initiative under the onslaught unleashed by the votaries of Post Modernism and the eponymous character of the critics in the recent past. Today in retrospect it might be deemed an exercise in construction to take into account some of the novels and short stories written in Urdu literature and determine their relevance in terms of the theories of the day. Modernism breathed its last in the last half of the 20th century after serious deliberations on the mundane and existential nature of human drama with alienation being its hymn. Altaf Hussain Hali , Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and ShibliNomani, the exponents of Modernism in Urdu literature though the benchmark of their time are relegated to the background in the context of the time much the same way as