Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces. Glass : tempered glass is the choice recommended in high rise buildings as opposed to plain glass as it can resist various live loads and would not shatter. Some advantages and disadvantages of the type of materials used are: non corrosive, easy in casting (in situ) plasticity. Disadvantages can be, the cost to construct the dead weight, (weight associated with the structure) and the challenge or difficulty which may be encountered when pouring
It is believed that investment of energy efficient buildings provides rapid and much cheaper results rather than increasing alternative energy supply (UN, 2009). In addition to this, upgrading energy efficient construction is one of the crucial opportunity to elevate development in economy, environmental stewardship, social and life quality, lastly human rights (UN, 2009). As United Nations (2009) mentioned, more appropriate energy efficient use diminishes the enforcement of energy use on climate change and usage of modern energy-saving technologies is the one of the effective ways to enlarge energy efficiency. Furthermore, improving the energy efficiency of buildings makes more adaptable regardless of any changes in weather condition and such buildings likely to emit less carbon dioxide emissions that polluted air tends to affect inflammatory as well as respiratory systems that can lead to worsening of heart and lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema even the lung cancer which is recently more serious disease (DERA, 2011). Improvement in energy efficiency in construction makes energy more available which can be probably used alternatively; also, reduces the political instability risks which tend to arise because of energy price inflation for householders or energy shortages (UN, 2009).
These materials have been used for both structural and appearance purposes. That is to say, they work to bear load and give the building a facade. Dry walls and wooden panelling have also been used inside. Steel beams are also easily identifiable supporting the stair cases made of concrete. The building itself is constructed with a wide array of structural elements.
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.
• Prestressed concrete is a modern material in which the stresses resulting from external loads are counteracted to a desired degree by introducing internal stresses of a suitable magnitude. • In reinforced concrete members, the prestress is commonly introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement. • The apparent tensile strength of a material like concrete, which is strong in compression but weak in tension, is increased by application of permanent compressive stresses. • ¬¬¬¬Once the initial compression has been applied, the resulting material has the features of ductile high-strength steel when subject to tension forces and high-strength concrete when subjected to any compression forces. The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress.
The greater part of the dividers were canvassed with block in territories nearer to the ground for additional steadiness and quality. In the development of the Pantheon, the dividers were block confronted concrete; in the lower levels, where quality and strength was required. The solid contained substitute layers of chunks of travertine and tufa, and as they rose and required helping the travertine was supplanted by broken block. The structure of the Pantheon itself is included a progression of curves. By utilizing curves in the development of the building, it exhibits the Romans comprehension of weight appropriation and its significance in building materials.
Drilling a gap in concrete is a helpful and convenient strategy. You can set up racks, hang artistic creations, introduce lights, and do significantly more rapidly and securely. The procedure itself is straightforward, however choosing the correct devices and seeing how to utilize them will spare you a colossal measure of time. Setting Up Hammer drill Drilling concrete is substantially less demanding with a hammer drill, or a revolving hammer for huge occupations. These instruments crack the solid through fast hammering and afterward drill to scoop out the broken material.
33,510 cubic meters of concrete, 30,000 square metres of stainless steel cladding and 12,000 square metres of glass were used during the construction.” In fact, Lloyd tower possesses a rectangular shape of the plan and was born in a trapezoidal plot. While according to En.wikiarquitectura.com, (2015), “the remaining space between the margins of the plot and the plant's central building are occupied by six towers.” The six towers are assorted into two categories which are three of the towers considered as main towers and the other three towers considered as service towers. All categories of towers are assigned systematically. Those towers are located around the central of the rectangular plan, and the design’s focus point is formed. According to Elior at Lloyds, (2013), it consists 14 floors that are equipped with its services which are staircases, lifts, and water pipes on the outside, leaving an uncluttered space inside and electrical power tubing.