Procedural Learning Vs Declarative Knowledge

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Declarative knowledge, the knowing of definitions and concepts, refers to factual knowledge and information that a person knows. Declarative knowledge alone leads to students becoming depositories of information.
‘Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor….
Scope of action allowed to the student extends only as far as receiving, filing and storing the deposits’
(Freire, 1970)
The student therefore becomes reliant on author active instruction and develops a dependency on the teacher, leaving the student with a “tell me what to do and think” mentality.
Knowledge acquired through this form of teaching is easily forgotten by the students and there is a stifling of any
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Both declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are intertwined to a certain degree as shown in figure 1.1 below;

Fig 1.1 (Nickols, 2000)

While procedural knowledge is dependent on a certain level of declarative knowledge, the outcomes of teaching and learning of each are very distinct. Used together in a positive learning environment yields positive outcomes.

Conceptual knowledge
Conceptual knowledge is students ability make the relations between definitions, concepts and facts.
The difference between procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge was defined by Rittle-Johnson and Albali in their seminal work, “Conceptual and procedural knowledge: Does one lead to the other? Journal of Educational Psychology”.
We define conceptual knowledge as explicit or implicit understanding of the principles that govern a domain and of the interrelations between pieces of knowledge in a domain. We define procedural knowledge as action sequences for solving
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Self motivation beliefs

These beliefs centre the student and allow for the completion of the forethought phase. Self-efficiency which in this case is students’ belief about their ability to learn a task (Zimmerman 2002) , is a key element in these beliefs.
"Self-efficacy is extremely important for self-regulated learning because it affects the extent to which learners engage and persist at challenging tasks. Higher levels of self-efficacy are related positively to school achievement and self-esteem.” (Schraw et al, 2006)
Outcome expectations can be regulated by the teacher for example, if a student can see how a certain task is relatable to how she will use it in the future she is more likely to want to acquire the proposed knowledge.

The performance phase is generally seen as two separate disciplines.
Firstly, self-control displays the student's ability to utilize the strategies that were thought through in the forethought stage.
Task strategies can assist problem solving by reducing a task to its essential parts and reorganizing them meaningfully (Bruning et al,

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