According to Race et al (2005) evaluation or assessment is the most important thing teachers do to or for their students, since they believe that “the results of assessment influence students for the rest of their lives…”. Evaluation is an integral part of the teaching process, though it might be the most stressful part of it. Hense, evaluation practices and procedures must be constructively aligned (Biggs, 2003) with the learning outcomes that are defined for a particular course, entailing a systematic approach to learning and grading. Evaluation is important for myriad reasons: 1. For quality learning environment.
There are two approaches according to Spady, the traditional and transformational. The traditional approach emphasizes students’ mastery of content some cross discipline outcomes like the ability to solve problems or to work cooperatively, whereas, the transformational approach emphasizes longterm, cross-curricular outcomes that are related directly to students’ future life roles such as being a productive worker or a responsible citizen or parent. The approaches mentioned strongly suggest the use of authentic assessment methodologies in the various
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
Vygotsky mentioned that the “gap” between what learners can do easily and what learners can do with the help of a more knowledgeable other based on his concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Thus, the most effective learning takes place when the task given to the learners is a level higher than the learners’ actual knowledge (i+1). Knowledge is best transferred when the teacher co-operates and discuss with the learners. The importance of scaffolding is its contribution to the teacher-learning relationship. It focuses on the role of teacher and learners which are distinct but complementary in the learning context (Gibbons, 2002).
The concept of learning is changing from lecturers teaching to student learning. The assumption of this shift is based on students who are expected to improve their ability in enriching knowledge, attitudes and skills based on competencies in the curriculum. Thus, it can be said that student activeness is an indicator of meaningful learning. Meaningful learning is an approach in the management of learning systems through active learning ways toward independent learning. The ability to learn independently is the ultimate goal of meaningful learning.
Feedback is a significant element in determination of education quality as well as in effective learning where it portrays the learning outcomes for students and the successes for the tutors. There are many aspects that concern educationists with regards to feedback but the relationship between perspectives of learning as well as teaching and feedback stands as the most important among them. Feedback should be conveyed in different modes in a learning environment but whatever mode chosen creates room for dialogue between the tutor and students. Therefore, it is only through feedback that the student engagement relationship with the feedback as well as the tutors’ perceptions of learning, teaching and assessment that such successes can be established. The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted.
It’s also important to remember that intrinsic motivation aids students’ learning and that the quality of classroom interaction matters a great deal. According to Deci and Ryan (1985), intrinsic motivation is linked to elementary human needs for proficiency, independence, and understanding. Innately motivated deeds are those that the apprentice engages in for their own welfare due to their significance, awareness, and challenge. Such activities present the greatest promising chances for knowledge. Learning is the result of motivation which at the same time is the product of one of these needs or a combination of them.
•Change as adaptation (promoting stability in schools and enabling one to adapt in larger environments) •Change as rational process (schools take the lead and provide an environment in which students can learn analytic skills and help determining the direction in which society should go) •Change as dialect (students can help explore the tension between the individual and society) SII (Strengths, Improvement, and Insights): 1. Strength: What were the main strengths in completing the chapter learning objective as questions, and why was it a strength? •My main strengths for this chapter were identifying which educational philosophies that I mostly related to. Another strength was distinguishing the differences and similarities between the philosophies. Another was putting together my own outline of my personal philosophy.
An important aspect in encouraging and maintaining motivation in learning is by setting goals. The students should show a set of motivational beliefs and adaptive emotion, such as a high sense of academic self-efficacy, the adoption of learning goals, and the development of positive emotions toward task (eg. Joy, satisfaction, enthusiasm). 2. Method Methods and strategies refer to how students learn.