Figure 10 shows the reaction between dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. In this reaction, oxygen acts as a nucleophile and hydrogen act as an electrophile. Therefore, hydrogen pull electron from oxygen to form methanol and ethylene terephthalate is formed. INDUSTRIAL SCALE PREPARTION Polyethylene Terephthalate is produced from high purity Ethylene glycol (EG) and Terephthalic acid (TPA) or Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT). Both processes first produce the intermediate bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-terephthalate (BHET) monomer and either methanol in DMT process or water in TPA process.
The name is a narrowing resulting from alkene and alcohol. So that’s why the Enolization is renowned as the technique of converting a molecule containing a carbonyl group into the analogous enol tautomer. Enols are isomers of aldehydes or ketones in which one alpha hydrogen has been detached and replaced on the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group. The resulting molecule has both a C=C (ene) and an OH (ol) group, so it is referred to as an enol. Stringently speaking, to be an enol the –OH and the C=C must be directly linked to one another, i.e., in conjugation with each other, as shown
Bromination is a type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction where one hydrogen atom of benzene or benzene derivative is replaced by bromine due to an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring. The purpose of this experiment is to undergo bromination reaction of acetanilide and aniline to form 4-bromoacetanilide and 2,4,6-tribromoaniline respectively. Since -NHCOCH3 of acetanilide and -NH2 of aniline are electron donating groups, they are ortho/para directors due to resonance stabilized structure. Even though the electron donating groups activate the benzene ring, their reactivities are different and result in the formation of different products during bromination. In acetanilide, the lone pair of the nitrogen is delocalized into the
The goal of this lab was to prepare methyl m-nitrobenzoate using electrophilic aromatic substitution using nitration. The reaction used methyl benzoate with the acid catalyst as sulfuric acid. The mechanism for the nitration using methyl benzoate is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Benzene can only undergo substitution reactions that are called electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical.
Further protonation creates water, which acts as the leaving group as the intermediate collapses. This process will be repeated on the second carboxyl group on the molecule to form 3-nitrophthalhydrazine. The nitro group on this product is then reduced with dithionate. The anion radical of dithionate transfers an electron to the nitro group to produce a dianion radical, which is protonated before a second electron is transferred from another dithionite radical. These protonation and electron transfer is repeated until the former nitro group has been reduced and luminol is
The melting point range for the crude product was 113-115.3℃. the melting point range for the purified product was also 113-116℃. This melting point range was almost perfect to that of the theoretical melting point which is 113-115℃ proving that the product was in fact created. When looking at the percent yield of the crude acetanilide, there was an 81% yield which was a very good yield because the average percent yield is between 80-90%. The percent recovery of the acetanilide was 88% which is also very good because much of the product was recovered meaning that the product was in fact
The addition of a proton to one of the hydroxyl groups of the activated complex gives a new oxonium ion. 5. This is the step in which water (one of the products formed in reaction) is formed. The loss of water from this oxonium ion and the deprotonation step gives the ester. Materials As per
The extracted organic layer was steam bathed to vaporize light petroleum which has low boiling point at 30-40˚C. Chromic acid is a more commonly used reagent for the oxidation of alcohols, it is a suspected carcinogen and generates hazardous waste. In green chemistry, innocuous chemical such as hypochlorous acid, HOCl will be used in oxidation, as to reduce the harmful waste. Green chemistry is the name given to modifications implemented in chemical manufacturing processes that ensure a safer and cleaner
This is highly exothermic reaction with the present of multi component catalyst such as molybdenum, bismuth and iron supported by silica. These catalysts can achieve high selectivity and weak activity that deactivate the process slowly. The drawback using these catalysts is the product is easily poisoned by sulfur compound in the reactant gas. Because of the highly exothermic reaction, it can achieve until 670 to 750 kJ/mol of heat reaction. The superficial velocity of reactant gas inserted into the reactor is very fast by the range of 0.4 to 0.7 m/s and it only taken few seconds of contact time from 5 to 20s in the reactor.
These common names are in use to date such as we call the simplest ketone “dimethyl ketone” as acetone. Alkyl phenyl ketones naming is done by the addition of acyl group as the prefix to the word “phenone”. IUPAC Names The IUPAC naming of aliphatic aldehydes and aliphatic ketones is comparatively easy. It is derived by taking the corresponding alkane and replacing the end letter –e of the alkane with either –al or –one. In case of aldehyde –al is written whereas in case of ketone –one is written.