Process Chemistry Acetone Research Paper

1300 Words6 Pages
Process Chemistry – Outcome 2

Acetone

Blair Holman
13/12/2017

Contents

Industrial Synthesis
Main Uses
Demand
Origins
Availability
Cost
Environmental Impact

Industrial Synthesis

Acetone is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. Acetone is the simplest Ketone which is Propan-2-one. Acetone can be produced using different methods which are the Cumene Process, From Alkane nitriles, the hydrolysis of Gem-Dihalides, the Oxidation of Isopropyl Alcohol, the Ozonolysis of Alkenes and the Fermentation Process.
Cumene Process – The process was invented by Heinrich Hock in 1944 and also independently by R. Udris and P.Sergeyev in 1942. This process uses to relatively cheap base starting materials
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Some of which are that it a very good solvent in the process of making many plastics and certain synthetic fibres. Also used to thin polyester resin, cleans tools used with it, dissolves two-part epoxies and superglue before they harden. Used as one the volatile components of some paints and varnishes. It is useful for preparing metal before it gets painted. It is also useful for high reliability soldering applications to remove rosin flux after soldering is complete it also helps to prevent the rusty bolt effect. Acetone is used as a solvent by a pharmaceutical industry and as a denaturant in denatured alcohol. It is also present as an excipient in some pharmaceutical drugs.
As chemical intermediate acetone is used to synthesize methyl methacrylate(CH3)2C(OH)CN + CH3OH → CH2=(CH3)CCO2CH3 + NH3
The third major use of acetone (about 20%) is synthesizing bisphenol A. Bisphenol A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates, polyurethanes, and epoxy resins. The synthesis involves the condensation of acetone with phenol:(CH3)2CO + 2 C6H5OH → (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 + H2O
Many millions of kilograms of acetone are consumed in the production of the solvents methyl isobutyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone. These products arise via an initial aldol condensation to give diacetone alcohol. 2 (CH3)2CO →
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Membrane damage, a decrease in size and decrease in germination of various agricultural and ornamental plants is damage acetone has caused. The effects acetone has on birds and land animals has not been completely determined but it is not expected to bioaccumulate in plants, animals or humans. It occurs naturally in the environment but industrial processes contribute more acetone to the environment than the natural processes. It is mainly emitted to air and it can move from being in the atmosphere into water through rain and snow and then quickly back into the air. It quickly degrades in soil within days. It quickly evaporates into a gas if released as a liquid. It degrades in sunlight to other chemicals with the half of life of it being approximately 22 days. It does not bind to the soil or bioaccumulate in animals. Microorganisms in the soil and the water are capable of degrading acetone. There are currently no environmental guidelines for

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