The CAPS strives towards a classroom environment where learners are able to work as individuals as well as part of a team. Constructivism states that learners should participate in cooperative learning so that they can be able to learn from their More Knowledgeable Other (2016:61). The CAPS promotes the use of different communication methods in the classroom in order to teach efficiently. In addition, teachers should make use of visual, symbolic and language skills simultaneously. Constructivism promotes the use of technology in the classroom in order to support teaching (2016:98).
Curriculum is restricted to a restricted range of student skills and knowledge. Learning experiences are individual and are not totally within the power of the teacher to select. The teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situation sufficient to induce the kind of learning outcomes desired. Critical thinking, problem solving and value acquiring processes cannot be simply declared in behavioral objectives (Prideaux, 2003). Curriculum theory is a set of interrelated statement that gives useful meanings to an institutional curriculum by describing the relationships between its different components and elements and by directing its development, use and evaluation.
Inroduction In the following report the principles, benefits and challenges of independent learning will be discussed. 1.1 A classroom environment is very diverse. There are learners with different types of intelligences, cultural, social and personal backgrounds and learners with specific learning difficulties. It is important that a teacher recognize these needs and plan her teaching strategies in meeting with the learning objectives. This is where creativity and innovation enters; it is the ability to think beyond the obvious.
Stenhouse states that curriculum “is not a package of materials or a syllabus of ground to be covered.” (Stenhouse, 1975, p.142). Curriculum as process suggests that curriculum includes the activity taking place in the classroom and the preparation and evaluation ensuing. (bb reading). Curriculum as process empowers us to direct attention on aiding the understanding of the student rather than the transmission of content or the accomplishment of predetermined behaviours. (Kelly, 2004).
Many scholars (Esch, 1998:37) have the autonomy defined as what is not, for instance “it is not self-instruction/learning without a teacher;… it does not mean that intervention or initiative on the part of a teacher is banned; … it is not something teachers do to learners; i.e. a new methodology; … it is not a single easily identifiable behaviour; … it is not a steady state achieved by learners once and for all” (Esch, 1998:37). In David Little 's terms, learner autonomy is 'essentially a matter of the learner 's psychological relation to the process and content of learning--a capacity for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action ' (Little, 1991: 4). It is not something done to learners; therefore, it is far from being
This encourages them to be more confident with their own viewpoints. ‘As a result in a collaborative environment, learners get a chance to interact with peers, put forth and argue over their ideas ,form their own opinions based on ideas presented by others and play an active role in learning. Students gain skills like decision making, leadership and many other management skills as well. In the end, students will be able to set targets, evaluate their individual and group performance and identify weaknesses. This will automatically help improve their skills and produce better work in
The activities to be undertaken in the school by the child depend on them. Knowledge cannot be separated from the interests of a child. So, it can be said that students in such a school work in groups based on their interest areas. The traditional, compartmentalized curriculum with its numerous subjects has no place here. Rather, it is believed that these subjects are summaries of human experience, thus children should be given the opportunity to experience and then summarise their experiences.
The K-12 Curriculum is student-centered, thus the pupil is at the center and is the recipient of knowledge, skills and who’s necessary for lifelong learning. He is empowered through active involvement and participation in class activities. On the outside rings are the teaching practices and reinforcement techniques These two affect the teaching-learning process that the pupil goes through They have a great impact on the child’s development. In turn, the teaching practices and reinforcement techniques also affected by the educational theories like behaviourism, socio-cultural theory, classical conditioning theory, operant conditioning theory, social learning theory and others. To sum up, the theories, teaching practices and reinforcement techniques
The teaching strategies will be more effective through interactive activities that incorporate with technology. Based on study, the integration of multimedia technology is more effective than traditional way of teaching. Traditional way of teaching is a teacher-centered approach in which students have given less attention because the strategies were not focused on them. Traditional teachers were most likely applying traditional teaching strategies in the classroom. The use of technology was not given emphasis as the students only learned what were taught by their teachers.
Educational instruction can be defined as a way of collecting, organizing and sequencing resource information in order to enhance the transmission of information from the teacher to student. Educational design is the procedural planning and development of instructional design. It involves a set of outcome based procedures by means of which the most efficient instructional policies and strategies are developed or chosen, given the outcomes students are to attain and the circumstances under which they are to achieve them. The design of any educational instruction always involves the use of learning theories, course design models and strategies, to help students develop knowledge and