Process Theories In Human Resource Management

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In order to maximize the focus on staffs, managers as well as to provide orientation for employees who work in the organization, Human Resource Management Department (HRM) was born and plays an important role in an organization. HRM is defined as all the activities of human resource planning, staffing, performance management, training & development, compensation &benefits, and industrial relations. In reality, people are evaluating the successful level of a company by its profit but the fact that profit just plays an objective role while employee’s performance is the key to value an organization. A quantitative review by Vroom (1964) has shown that the median correlation between a person ‘satisfaction and performance was only 0.14. Nevertheless,…show more content…
In this section, the theoretical perspective of content theories will be discussed under these categories of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired-needs theory. Firstly, Maslow’s theory was originally published in 1943, rather than a focus on attitudes, Maslow posited that there is a hierarchy of five sets of goals for which people strive in seeking satisfaction of their basic needs. This was known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943). Located in the lowest section of the needs pyramid, psychological need refers to all the basic needs as food, drink, habitation, sleep, breath and even sex. When this need met, safety need should be met. Safety is the reflection of security of the body, health, property, family and so on. According to this theory, when one satisfied the level, they will continue upon moving from thee bottom to the top of that pyramid by turn whenever the lower level was already fulfilled (Maslow, 1965). The safety need is followed by the esteem need. Once the two…show more content…
Including Vroom’ expectancy theory, Porter and Lawler’s expectancy Model, Adams Equity theory, Reinforcement Theory, all the process theories plays a role of an individual’s cognitive processes in determining his or her level of motivation (PRINCIPLE OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR). Jean Stacy Adams develops equity Theory in the 1965. This theory stated that people examine the ratio of their outcomes relative to their inputs relative to those of comparison other (Adams, 1963,1965). Baldamus’s classic study Efficiency and Effort (1961) points out that in a stable employment relationship the two sides will affect have stuck a bargain, in which the employee’s total effort is exchanged for pay and other returns. If an individual is able to realize that their “output” is below what they deserve, people tend to restore equity to attempt to decrease their outcome. In contrast, if realize that they are paid higher than they deserve, the performance will be improved in order to meet the balance. The Equity Theory is also presents in the aspect of fairness in the working place, between employers. In case of being aware of the unfairness between themselves and other workers, they will adjust themselves to maintain the balance. Thus, regarding to managers, recognize the performance and procedure the bonus system for workers is necessary for their performance. In addition, based on the uniquely human characteristics, and

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