Introduction To Motivation

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Motivation is the desire to do things. It is the most important element in setting and attaining goals.

The internal and external factors that rouse desire and inspire the energy in individuals to be continuously engrossed to attain a goal or to be bound to a job or a subject are known as motivational factors.

There are two main types of factors, the interaction of which results in motivation. They are conscious factors and unconscious factors. They include:
1. The intensity of desire or need
2. Incentive or reward value of the goal
3. Expectations of the individual and of his or her peers These factors are the reasons for one’s behavior a certain way. For example,
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TYPES of motivation

Motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic (internal) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation.
Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to explore new things and face new challenges, to examine and determine one 's capacity, to notice and to acquire knowledge and information.

Students are intrinsically motivated if they:
• Attribute their educational and academic conclusions to determinants under their own command.
• Students tend to believe they have the abilities to be active workers in reaching their desired aims. This is also known as self-efficacy beliefs.
• Students are attracted to mastering a topic, not just acquiring acceptable grades.

Another example of intrinsic motivation is when an employee turns into an IT professional because he desires to gain knowledge about how computer users interact with computer networks. The employee has the intrinsic motivation to acquire more information and more knowledge.

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Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with what motivates and inspires individuals and is concerned with personal needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” viewpoint. Process Theories deal with the process of motivation and is concerned with how it occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” viewpoint.


1. Abraham Maslow’s theory – Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow introduced his theory in his article “A theory of Human Motivation”, in 1943 (Maslow, 1943). According to Abraham Maslow, a person attempts to fulfill a higher need when his lower needs are satisfied. A higher level need serves as a motivation only when the lower level need is satisfied and is no longer a source of motivation. Only unsatisfied needs serve as motivators.
There are five levels of needs:
1. Physiological needs: These are the most basic needs for individuals to exist such as land, air, food and
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