Introduction Research on teaching writing in a second language was initiated in the late 1960s, and most early efforts were centered on tech- niques for teaching writing. These efforts led to the process approach, which helps students to work through several stages of the writing process. Later, more attention was paid to the nature of writing in various situations. This then brought popularity to the genre approach, which focuses on mod- els and key features of texts written for a particular purpose. In the process approach, a teacher typically has students follow the steps of prewriting, writing, revising, and editing before achieving the final product, and this sequence teaches students how to write.
According to Horowitz (1986: 144), the approach “creates a classroom situation that bears little resemblance to the situation in which (students’ writing) will eventually be exercised” (p.144). He goes on to suggest that a process orientation ignores certain types of important academic writing tasks( particularly essay exams) and that what he sees as two basic tenets of the process approach- “content determines form” and “good writing is involved writing”- do not necessarily hold true in many academic contexts. In essence, he asserts that the process approach overemphasizes the individual’s psychological functioning and neglects the socio-cultural context, that is, the realities of academia- that, in fact, the process approach operates in a socio-cultural
Writing could be seen as two different perspectives those are writing as a product and writing as a process. Precisely, writing as a product deals with the content, length, and spelling of the text, while writing as a process concerns in the transcription and revision that comes along during writing. However, the improvements made in writing skills could not be separated with the process. (Nunan, 1999 p. 274) view process of writing as a “complex, cognitive process that requires intellectual effort over the period of time”. Furthermore (Graves, 1994) mentioned the cognitive process which could enhance students’ writing skills in 5 stages, the following are pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing and publishing.
Here you also begin to connect your ideas. Regardless of how much thinking and planning you do, the process of putting your ideas in words changes them; often the very words you select evoke additional ideas or implications. Revision is the key to effective documents. Here you think more deeply about your readers’ needs and expectations. The document becomes reader-centered.
The learning method was suggested by a teacher and it just stuck with me. I get this ability to put all my ideas into one place while it illustrates to me where my essay has the potential of going as well. Furthermore, stage two of my writing process is constructing an outline. In the past, outlines were an inconvenience to complete because high school writing classes I had to put in little effort. However, when I got to college and had to grow accustomed to developing ideas and writing papers each week outlines became an essential part of how I get to the end goal.
Conflict, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning process. These tensions are resolved in iterations of movement back and forth between opposing modes of reflection and action and feeling and thinking (Kolb and Kolb, 2013). Forth proposition is “Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world”. According to Kolb and Kolb (2013), learning is not just the result of cognition but involves the integrated functioning of the total person—thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problem solving, decision making and creativity.
Through teaching writing, teachers help students to develop their mental attitudes toward writing effort and as a result they develop their life skills. Writing process: Barber et al. (2006) indicated that writing process consists of the different stages a writer goes through for developing a piece of writing. These stages are: 1- Prewriting: It is a stage of planning. At this stage, the writer should identify the topic and purpose for writing, identify the audience, and generate ideas.
The selection of the contents for their texts and the class work exercises were designed keeping their subject orientation in mind and also to facilitate intrinsic growth. The third step was to evolve a teaching learning and evaluation process. The typical teaching learning session involved independent learning with teacher as facilitator, and peer group learning. Peer group learning promoted group dynamics where there was space for empathy, motivation, social processes of interdependent learning environment and leadership role play. This process created an atmosphere conducive for teaching/ learning as also in aiding continuous assessment and
This approach also works best when learners read a text that is familiar than an unfamiliar one. When it comes to teaching reading the Synthetic approach is used more or a combination of the two approaches call the Eclectic approach. In my opinion to teach adult learners how to read I would the Synthetic Approach at the beginning and then the Analytic approach later on when my learners know the basic. ‘To be able to read writing in our society you have to understand the conventions by which writing is presented on the page’. There are a few technical aspects of print that learners need to know but the five I think are important are: • Print is arranged from left to right and from top to bottom: We read and write from the left of a page to right as well as from the top of the page to the bottom, going from left to write.
Learning occurs in different ways. The traditional method is still observed in the learning areas where learners are fond of listening and note- taking. This method then produces passive and incompetent learners. Project based learning, on the other hand, inspires learners to appreciate and develop an interest about the subject. Some researchers suggested that learners learn better if they are more interested about the subject and when they are directly involved in the learning process.