Parents help the children develop their first language. In addition, Krashen (1982:10) explains about language acquisition: “The first way language acquisition, a process similar, if not identical, to the way children develop ability in their first language. Language acquisition is a subconscious process; language acquirers are not usually aware of the fact that they are acquiring language, but are only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The result of language acquisition, acquired competence, is also subconscious. We are generally not consciously aware of the rules of the languages we have acquired.
There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process. Moreover those factors interact and depend on each other. Even some linguists like B.F Skinner (1957), convinced of the absence of innate skills in the acquisition of a language, developed the Behaviorism theory, attributing the acquisition of the language to environmental factors. Asserting that the acquisition is based on mechanisms like the imitation. With these theories we could assume that the adults’ role has great relevance since a human being can only become human when is raised in a human’s
Pienemann's Processability Theory (1998) claims that the speech production of a language learner at the time is an in dication of his/her limitation to process information. That is, while the native speaker's speech processing is automatic and is able to construct sentences without paying attention to grammatical items such as number, case, gender and person, the L2 learner must pay attention to grammatical items at the beginning of language acquisition. The locus of this kind of attention is at the working memory level and its capacity is highly limited. L2 learners' speech production, accordingly, is limited by the interaction between working memory capacity and the limited time for information processing during the course of speech production.
Technological Determinative Theory: The theory posits that a society's cultural and moral values are driven by its technological advancement levels. (Mcluhan,1962) Sociological Theory of Diffusion: this is a process in a social system where an innovative idea or concept is spread by members of the social group through certain channels. (Rogers,1962) Social construction of technology is a theory within the field of Science and Technology Studies. argue that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology (Weibe,1987) 11 Diffusion of Innovative Theory: This a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. It proposes that four main elements influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation itself, communication channels, time, and a social system.
Second Language Acquisition- A literature review of the critical period hypothesis: are children more prone to learning a second language? The world human beings live in is rising due to an unstoppable tide of technology merging all cultures into one. This requires that individuals learn more than one language to fulfill their vocational and social duties in general. Ever since the beginning of time, individuals used different forms of language to communicate; this has distinguished them from animals, some used drawings, others used letters and finally humanity developed in a way to reach the ultimate idea of language and grammar. Language is one of the major tools of communication amongst human beings; cognitive psychologists thus thrive to
This is defined as “a separate linguistic system based on the observable output which results from a learner’s attempted production of a TL [= Target Language] norm” (Selinker,1972) which determined how revealing are errors or ungrammatical forms in the ongoing process of language acquisition. While Selinker perceived this as a continual adjustment learners do to their L1 systems to approximate the L2 more closely, in a "restructuring" continuum, Corder hypothesizes, based on the characteristics of learners’ production, that this interlanguage cannot always be linked to the L1 for it displays features apparently derived from simplification processes, and so interlanguage development should be characterized as a "developmental" continuum (Koike,1989) . This enlightens our understanding how this process goes from the L1 to L2 proficiency, and it is important for as Cook stated “ “in part paved the way for communicative teaching methods” (Cook,
Language Acquisition “Natural language constitutes one of the most complex aspects of human cognition, yet children already have a good grasp of their native language before they can tie their shoes or ride a bicycle”. ……… said that: The relative simplicity of acqui-sition proposes that when a tyke makes an "estimate" about the structure of dialect on the premise of clearly constrained proof, the tyke has an uncanny propensity to figure right. This firmly proposes there must be a cozy relationship between the components by which the kid secures and forms dialect and the structure. (p)(3) “Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences
The attribution theory also has weaknesses. The feedback obtained by these attribution can influence the way in which an individual perceives an event or cause this is supported by Weiner’s(1992) theory of stable-unstable dimensions and the attributions made with failure and success. The perception of causes or events are viewed and interpreted differently by the individual and the observer and finally biases and preconceived social consensus can alter perception. Oversimplification and universality of the overall model in relation to causal factors(McLeod,2010).Kelley and Michela(1980) state that the covariation model is limited by “the accuracy with which covariation between events is perceived”; the affect is created by the predisposition in relation to the cause-effect relationship with
Cognitive Learning Theory suggests that the different methods regarding learning can be elucidated by scrutinising the mental progressions first. Unsuccessful cognitive processes provide effects in learning complications that can be perceived anytime during the period of an individual. Piaget’s theory Piaget’s theory of cognitive development contains of four stages of intellectual development. The first stage is the sensory motor stage ( birth-2 yrs. ), in this stage child does not know the physical object in existence when out of stage.