The two main paradigms that are used for describing these are using the objective, scientific-based positivist approach and the subjective, phenomological-based interpretivist approach. Since the positivist approach is grounded on a foundation of empirical testing, it looks largely at hypotheses and determines cause and effect relationships based on largely deductive logic as well as the validity and reliability of the research studies conducted. The interpretivist paradigm uses multiple perspectives of reality since this is based on a contextual interpretation of the issues being examined, where reality is a fluid construct and depends on who is being observed under a particular set of
This paper highlights some principles and theories of research paradigm mainly focus on epistemological issues in the development research arenas and critical assessment of the role of researchers (positionality/value/choice) in that process and I presents my position (i.e. constructivist epistemology) in the debate. Finally, concluding remarks will be made. As many studies have shown that development research paradigm was highly dominated by positivistic approaches (Sumner and Tribe, 2004). The trend in the research environment was characterized by the predomination of standard methods that are imposed top - down (Chambers, 2010).
For that reason, I will look at his breakdown of the four levels of reality and discuss how he uses it to unify the three paradigms. Moreover, I show what paradigms are, how they came about and why they are used in science. This will give a better understanding as to why paradigms need to be unified, particularly in sociology. The three major paradigms of social reality. How they came about and why Kuhn developed the theory of a paradigmatic science because he did not agree with the premise of inductive reasoning and
Every research project provides a link between a paradigm, epistemology, theoretical perspective, and research practice. A paradigm is identified in any school of thought – the integrated worldviews held by researchers and people in general that determine how these individuals perceive and attempt to comprehend truth (Fitzpatrick, Sanders, & Worthen, 2003). Furthermore, a paradigm includes an epistemological belief as well as an ontological belief that, when combined together, govern perceptions and choices made in the pursuit of scientific truth. In practice, individuals’ epistemological beliefs determine how they think knowledge or truth can be comprehended, what problems – if any – are associated with various views of pursuing and presenting knowledge and what role researchers play in its discovery (Robson, 2002). Different epistemologies offer different views of researchers’ relationships with their object of inquiry.
Research Methodology This chapter will be based on the methodology used for carrying out this study. It will be answering the research questions in section 1. The research design will be presented as well as the research paradigm. The data collection tools will be studied and data analysis will be described. The reliability and validity of this study will also be described.
When an epistemology is based on the positivism philosophy, the objectives and the nature of knowledge assumes that everything is based on causality when it comes to knowledge that exists. Secondly, an epistemology based on realism assumes that the nature of knowledge is based on the observable phenomenon (Saunders & Tosey, The layers of research design, 2013). Essentially, insufficient data provides inaccurate information, and some phenomenon may require proper inaccurate information were not collected effectively. Third, when an epistemology is based on the interpretivism philosophy the nature of knowledge is based on the social phenomenon and subjective meanings that change the meaning based on the situation. Finally, when an epistemology is based on pragmatism, the nature of knowledge is dependent on the nature of the questions that are asked and not the nature of the
INTRODUCTION The researchers are subjected to different theories, methods, and belief systems which are already existing to guide the investigation, inquiry or study. The research tradition or research paradigm is the system that a researcher needs to follow based on type of a research. Research Paradigm can be defined as a belief system which guides the researcher on how the study should be investigated and addressed. The focus of following paper will be on differentiating between three types of research traditions which are positivism, interpretivism and critical realism based on their positions on; reason for research, ontology, epistemology, axiology, and methodology. POSITIVISM Positivism paradigm originated in 19th century as result
It is the assumptions the researcher makes in his mind about the way in which the world works. ’The first aspect of ontology is objectivism. This portrays the position that social entities exist in reality external to social actors concerned with their existence. The second aspect, subjectivism, holds that social phenomena are created from the perceptions and consequent actions of
The structure of phenomena is the major finding of any descriptive phenomenological inquiry. This structure is based on the meanings that are present in the descriptions of the participants and determined both by analysis and also by insights (Anonymous, 2003). The research is conducted to evaluate and understand the lived experiences of STEM students who failed in their subjects in University of the East, Recto Ave Manila. Based on the interviews that researchers conducted to around four (4) STEM students, their experiences were analyzed and appraised to understand and know more cause why students fail and determine the effects of their failure. Looking for the subject The first part of our research is finding possible subject.The researchers gathered significant information.