Project Management In Construction

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NTRODUCTION
Project management in construction has been practiced for thousands of years, it emerged during the growing complexity of commerce and industries on large defense projects and during this time, technology advancement shortened the project schedule. however, it has been about half a century ago that organizations started with the use of systematic project management tools and techniques to complex construction projects. During the world war II there was virtually no construction which took place in some parts of the world, however in the mid 1950’s larger construction projects were planned and made with the inclusion of very big hospitals, large schools and university buildings and other major public projects with others of all sorts.
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The author argues that without a good understanding of all of these principles, such projects would’ve never succeeded. The book also refutes four misperceptions about historical projects: Historical projects had unlimited budgets without an economic return; Historical projects had a predominant slave workforce; Historical projects had unlimited timelines; and Historical projects had used concepts not associated with modern project (Kozak-Holland, 2011). Reading the book one will understand that current project management is the result of a natural evolution and has been practiced throughout the history of humanity. Incrementally, with the completion of each successful significant project knowledge, skills, tools and techniques advanced paving the way for the next historic project.

FOUR PERIODS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Modern project management started in 1958 with the development of CPM/PERT (KWAK). In 1987 Prof Peter Morris, a Professor of Construction and Project Management argued that the origin of project management comes from the chemical industry just prior to World War II. He further notes that the project management
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Kwak asserts that the origins of modern project management started between 1900s and 1950s. During that period project management transformed from a Craft system to Human Relations Administration. At that time, better transportation and telecommunication systems allowed for higher mobility and speedy communication. Gantt charts were also developed and in use at that time. It was also during that time that the concept of job specification, which is specifying knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to successfully perform a job. Important projects from that period are Hoover Dam, Interstate Highway and Manhattan project. Gantt Charts were first used in Hoover Dam and then in the Interstate Highway projects. The Manhattan project on the other hand, was particularly important because many still consider it the beginning of modern project management. The Manhattan Project “exhibited the principles of organization, planning, and direction that influenced the development of standard practices for managing projects.” (Shenhar A.,
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