SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
Metabolic processes are very important in the cell. Most of these processes need to be facilitated by enzymes and macromolecules. Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles which facilitate most of the metabolic processes, while prokaryotes do not have membrane bound organelles and metabolic processes occur in the cytoplasm. Both cells types have ribosomes; however they do not have the same structure. The ribosomes of a eukaryote contain more protein and less RNA than inside the ribosomes of prokaryotes.
Assignment unit 3 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have: 1) a membrane-bound nucleus; 2) numerous membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and others; and 3) several, rod-shaped chromosomes. Because a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a “true nucleus.” The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as already mentioned, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions. At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell.
Summary Endoplasmic reticulum is a eukaryotic organelle that forms interconnected network of cisternae, vesicles and tubules within the cells[1,2]. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosome free endoplasmic reticulum also know as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, its functions including lipid synthesis, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium concentration[2,3,4]. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum can be isolated from animal soft by centrifugation method and the production form isolation can be used to study the metabolism of lipid and the recovery
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All amino acids have the same basic structure but differ in their R-side chains. Each amino acid consists of an amino group (-NH3), a carboxyl group (-COOH) and a hydrogen atom (H). The amino and carboxyl groups are attached to a central alpha carbon together with a hydrogen atom and an R-side chain. There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins.
There are in fact two types of cloning, natural and artificial. Natural Cloning: Natural cloning occurs in single-celled organisms. Examples of these organisms would be bacteria, protozoa and fungi. These organisms produce genetically identical cells through asexual reproduction. Natural cloning also occurs in mammals, including humans.
All living cells are divided into two distinct categories, those which lack a membrane bound organelles and those that have membrane bound organelles. These are called prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, respectively. “Organelle” is the word used for the specialized subunit that is within a cell which has a specific function. Mitochondria is one such membrane bound organelle. The word mitochondrion describes its size and shape and comes from the New Greek for “mitos”, which is the word for “thread" and “chondrion”, which is the word for "small grain".
These cells are divided into two groups: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes might be similar, but they also have a lot of differences. First of all, eukaryotes and prokaryotes have the same basic structure. An example of this is the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm composes the volume or the inside of a cell.
Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure.Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends.The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species.
Cell Division As a eukaryotic organism grows, cells divide and create new cells based on its DNA. This is called cell division. Cell division is the process when a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division occurs as part of the cell cycle. The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis.