The average school-based speech-language pathologist (SLP) is likely to maintain a caseload that consists of a significant number of children with phonological disorders (Gierut, 2001). According to the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (1999), 10-15% of preschoolers have a speech disorder. Given the lifelong importance of phonologic learning and intelligibility in daily functioning, there is a need to utilize effective intervention strategies for targeting these skills. Goal-attack strategies, as stated by Fey (1986), arrange treatment in a way that works to eliminate a child’s phonological errors and restructure the phonological system. The vertical, horizontal, and cyclical goal-attack strategies have been applied to multiple
Nearly every American speaks a dialect of English that varies from the dialect that is considered “correct,” or Standard American English (SAE); however, although dialects are entirely acceptable variants of English, some dialectal speakers experience increased prejudice and hardships due to their speech patterns, such as negative stigmas and intelligibility issues. A common hardship experienced by children who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), which is spoken by many African Americans, is increased difficulty mastering many literacy skills in schools. To explain, because AAVE differs in the syntax, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics from SAE, many children having difficulty mediating between the language system they are learning
One child I’ve worked with quite closely was identified early on. His knowledge retention was very low, even when looking at things he was interested in such as dinosaurs and bugs. He often couldn’t remember his classmate’s names or our names and by Christmas, he still wasn’t able to identify any of the initial sounds or identify the written number form on a regular basis. It was decided to implement a regular intervention group to improve his memory as well as to speak with his parents about any additional needs that might be identified by a medical professional. We also noticed he mis-pronounced various letters which added to his confusion so I decided to create a set of letters with pictures attached to them so that he could identify the sounds easier and we could understand what letter he was trying to say. For example, c’s were often pronounced as t’s so ‘cat’ was pronounced ‘tat’ and g’s were pronounced as d’s so dog would we said ‘dod’. In order to concentrate on a single letter and try to find a word that he could pronounce correctly, I created word mats of pictures starting with a single letter and we played games of trying to guess which picture I was
This article was found using a search through a search on EBSCOhost and the intended audience is classroom teachers and speech-language pathologists. Its intent is to help structure a collaborative classroom environment between classroom teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) including ideas on how to structure communication between classroom teachers and SLPs to increase student performance. The ideas are logical and the article acknowledges many limitations and constraints for collaboration between teachers and SLPs while reminding the reader of the importance and gains that can be made through a partnership. In a school building, the SLP is a valuable resource which can be overlooked. In my building, we have pull-out speech services
In Dr. Louise Spear- Swerlings’ article, she stated that in Kindergarten through third grade, student should be taught five key elements for effective reading abilities, which are phonemic awareness, phonics knowledge, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. Dr. Spear- Swerling, continued by saying phonic awareness is well develop in normally achieving reader by the end of first grade and by the end of third grade they should have acquired basic phonics knowledge.
Dingess Elementary Core Beliefs are that education involves and includes everyone. We guarantee a high quality instructional program that contains a rigorous and vertically curriculum, effective teaching and ongoing assessments. We aim to establish, ensure and maintain learning environments that are safe, orderly, and free of bullying as well as fostering a nurturing, healthy, structured, and sustainable, clean, environment designed to stimulate the creativity and innovation of each learner. We believe that every child is unique and important and with this in mind, we provide higher levels of rigor with differentiated instruction for all students. As well as interventions for students who are not proficient, so that every
Kamil is a Polish bilingual student who attends to fourth grade at Cowlishaw Elementary. He has been attending Cowlishaw since second grade. Prior to that, he used to live in Poland where he completed first grade. The examiner conducted an interview with Kamil’s mother in order to garner a deeper understanding of Kamil’s reading attitudes and experiences.
Language, though primarily used as a means of communication, can be used to form community-like bonds with additions to and evolutions of different regional, cultural, racial, etc., vernaculars. What is one community’s “how are you?” is another’s “what’s good?” or “‘sup?” Those terms are understood and accepted almost unilaterally in their respective communities, but beyond those borders, they may or may not be. The push to broaden mandating “proper English pronunciation” is a direct attack on those communities that do not fall in the narrow definition of those whose community is deemed “correct” by mainstream society. When this is enforced, its roots are usually found in racism/white supremacy.
Over the past few months, the class has been discussing typical and atypical language development and the assessment and intervention of children with language delay or disorder. In line with this, the students were asked to observe children aged 0-12 years old with language problems for 2 hours. For this requirement, I went to a therapy center situated in Quezon City last November 16, from ten (10) A.M. to twelve (12) N.N. The center has multiple rooms that are used for speech therapy and occupational therapy. During my observation, two speech pathologists and two children with language disorder were sharing one speech therapy room.
This article was found using the EBSOChost search engine. In the article, preschool teachers are surveyed about their perceptions of students with speech-language difficulties and weak social competences. It further explored how teachers set up their class discipline procedures and had teachers rank problem behaviors. Based on the results, it gives speech-language pathologists (SLPs) ideas how to help classroom teachers correct misconceptions, alter their discipline from reactive to proactive, and highlight the negative effects of withdraw behaviors which are not often seen as negative to the child’s developmental growth. It offers many proactive strategies for teachers to begin implementing with reasoning and examples. This article was well
Share (1999) convincingly describes how decoding skills are supported by vocabulary, syntactic and semantic understandings. Speece and Cooper (2002) report a connection between early semantic skills and reading comprehension in their study of the connection between oral language and early reading. Decoding is vital because it is the basis on which all other reading instruction builds. If children are unable to decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be restricted, and their reading comprehension will suffer. Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills. Phonics can be taught both implicitly or explicitly. Implicit phonics begins with a whole word and then looks at beginning sounds, ending sounds and context clues. Explicit phonics does the reverse by building from a single letter to a
As a ESL student, I learned a lot information to teach young students to read, pronounce letters and words. “English is an alphabetic language, and children learn crack this code as they learn about phonemes (sound), graphemes (letters), and graph phonemic (letter-sound) relationship (Tompkins, p.103). My first language`s letters sounds never changed, but in English it changes when different letters come together for example “sh”, “ch” and words are cat and cent. When you read these word, sound is changing first letter of words even same letter. I learned alphabetic code and how children develop phonological awareness by manipulating sounds, matching letters and sounds to decode words, and representing sounds using letters as
In English language teaching there are several approaches that can be applied in a classroom. Each one has purpose and gives concern to certain skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) development. One of these approaches is Aural-Oral Approach. The Aural-Oral Approach is based on developing two language skills: listening and after that speaking which is the earlier stage of learning a language (Geri, 1990). Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student. It enhances listening and speaking also it increases new vocabulary for student. The aim of this essay is to give real imagine about how the Aural-Oral approach can be taught in or during English learning and give good improvement in both listening and speaking in order to reach student’s communicative competence.
My two day observation took place at Summit Academy high school. It is a school of about 700 students located in the city of Romulus MI. The teacher, Mrs. Jill Carbone allowed me to observe the 6th hour class for two days for 60 minutes each day. This class is composed of 11 English language learners (ELL); ten of the students are Spanish speakers and one student is Urdu speaker. During the two day observations, I had the opportunity to experience how Mrs. Carbone teaches listening, speaking, & pronunciation by incorporating different approaches.