However, it is more common at young and middle-aged men. Risk factors for prostatitis include: • History of prostatitis • Recent urinary tract infection • Being a young or middle-aged • Regular exercise (pelvic trauma: injury from bicycling) • Urinary catheter • Dehydration • Benign prostatic hyperplasia • Having HIV/AIDS • History of STDs Pathophysiological processes Acute bacterial prostatitis causes a tender, swollen gland; soft on palpation. This process is may or may not cause pain. The urine and prostatic secretions contain large quantities of microorganisms, pus, and leukocytes. The infection is caused by gram-negative bacteria that usually produce urinary tract infections (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus faecalis.)
1. Aetiology: Gonorrhoea is a specific disease caused by a Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, a Gram Negative diplococcus which can infect a variety of mucosal surfaces lined by columnar epithelial cells. Those sites mostly affected are the urethra in men, uterine cervix and urethra in women. Rectal infection is common in both in women and men that have sex with men. Gonococcal pharyngitis can occur following oro-genital contact in both sexes, but is found more frequently in men that have sex with men .Although adult gonococcal infections are usually sexually transmitted, vulvo-vaginitis can occur in pre- pubertal girls as a results of contact with fomites.
to adhere and colonize human intestinal mucosa/ epithelial cells is a major criterion for selection as probiotic or commensal bacteria. Adhesion to the host tissues is a prerequisite first step of bacterial colonization which is generally mediated by cell surface adhesion proteins . Adhesion of probiotic bacteria not only help in persistence of bacteria in gut but also participate in pathogen exclusion by competition and blocking of their binding sites at the mucosa . This adherence to epithelial cells on mucosal surface is modulated by specific binding of microbial adhesins. Lactobacilli adhesins can be broadly classified according to their targets in the intestinal mucosa (i.e.
Pediatric pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in children. Although , there are cures for this infection , if not detected early , it can pose to be life threatening. Most cases of pediatric pneumonia are found in developing countries like Bangladesh , Nigeria and the Sub Saharan Region. According to WHO , as of 2013 , the causality rate caused by pneumonia is at 2 million, amongst children under the age of five. This dramatically rising number proves that there is a need to understand the etiology of this infection , and determine what factors can be assessed to help in early detection of pneumonia.
Introduction Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria. Bacteria’s can have different features, shapes, and or arrangements that help microbiologist determined their role in our life (whether they are good or bad for humans). Bacteria can be classified as gram positive or negative (difference in call wall).
ABSTRACT Objective: As the peptic ulcer affects 2-10% of the population and is gradually affecting more of the young as compared to the old so a study was designed to identify the factors associated and look for the complications and incidence of peptic ulcer perforation in young adults. Methods: Patients of either sex between 18-30 years of age diagnosed of peptic ulcer perforation (gastric or duodenal ulcer perforation) failing to respond to medical therapy, admitted on an emergency basis were included into the study. Intra-operative findings pertaining to exploration under general anesthesia, release of free gas as the abdomen was opened, site and size of perforation, amount and nature of peritoneal contamination present were made note
Primary infection occurs in epithelial cells leading to a skin rash and fever as a phenotype. When virions spread to adjacent sensory neurons, a lifelong infection is established (Owen, Crump, & Graham, 2015). Both primary and secondary diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality but thanks to advances in diagnostic and the production of vaccines, it is possible to decrease their burden (Gershon, 2013). 1.1 Varicella: Varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection of VZV, is characterized by cutaneous eruption typically seen in children. In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013).
Therefore, without this these would not be able to maintain their functions that are essential in the importance of homeostasis. Moreover, homeostasis is significantly important to the cells of the body as these rely on the movement of chemicals. Chemicals that need to be sent in and out of cells are oxygen, dissolved food and carbon dioxide; this being performed by osmosis and diffusion. Also, osmosis and diffusion rely on the balance of the bodies water and salts, this being another aspect that is maintained by homeostasis. However, the cells rely on enzymes to make the chemical reactions that occur within the body, to keep the cells alive and ensure that it is carrying out it’s functions effectively, speeding it up.
The infection occurs mostly after a viral infection has lowered the immune system and has inflamed and obstructed the eustachian tube. This allows bacteria to infect the nasopharynx and move its way into the eustachian tube because of the shape of the tube in children allowing backflow to occur. The main culprits for bacterial infection are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.3 These bacteria make their way into the middle ear and can stay there and replicate. The horizontal shape of the tube doesn’t allow for clearance of any fluid or possible bacteria in the ear and therefore takes longer for the infection to clear.3