E-liquid usually has around four to five main ingredients called, “Propylene Glycol (PG), Vegetable Glycerin (VG), Polyethylene glycol (PEG), nicotine, and food flavoring. ”(Why Vape) Propylene glycol is one of the main ingredients found in vapes. It is also found in cosmetics, breathing treatments, which were discovered in the 1950’s.
The reaction to synthesize benzocaine was known as a Fisher esterification reaction. The Fisher esterification was reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid in the presence of acid. The reaction was used to form an ester. In the experiment, sulfuric acid acted as a catalyst and necessary for this reaction to occur. There was a change between the –OH group of carboxylic acid to an –OCH2CH3 group in the reaction.
Acetone may melt the ice cube quickly because it is commonly used as a solvent. A solvent is a substance that has the ability to dissolve other substances. Acetone is also commonly used as an antiseptic, and is toxic in large quantities. Acetone naturally occurs in plants, and has a chemical formula of C3H6O. Acetone has many other names, such as 2-propanone, propanone, Dimethyl ketone, methyl ketone and, dimethyl formaldehyde and can also be found in vehicle exhaust. Acetone is a clear, flammable, volatile liquid that is used to make drugs, plastics and different fibers.
Phenols can be used as disinfectants, medical products and etc. Phenols are readily absorbed following inhalation, ingestion or skin contact, and it can be found in human breast milk (Wolff, 2007). It is produce naturally and synthesized as a manufactured chemical. It is an constituent of coal tar, decomposing organic material, human and animal wastes, and as a compound that is commonly found in many non-foods and foods (Xhang, 2008).
Using filtration sodium acetate was separated, and the filtrate was evaporated to obtain syrup and fractionated at a boiling point of 133-136 °C. The obtained product dissolved in hydrogen bromide of glacial acetic acid and this mixture reaction kept in an ice bath for 1hr. According to procedure, the product was methylated to obtain 1bromo-2, 3, 4, 6-tetramethylglucose.
Purpose/Introduction The process of recrystallization is an important method of purifying a solid organic substance using a hot solution as a solvent. This method will allow the separation of impurities. We will analyze Benzoic Acid as it is dissolved and recrystallized in water and in a solvent of Methanol and water. Reaction/Summary
The benefits of Shea butter just get better. The oil conditions from the hair root to the end of each strand. Massaging the scalp prevents itching or drying out causing hair to break or fall out. Regular applications provide the SPF needed to protect your hair from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. Over all, the oil keeps your hair moist, free flowing and shining.
In this diagram we can see that acetaminophen consists of a benzene ring core, with hydroxyl and amide functional groups in proxy. Benzene (C6H6) is a hydrocarbon composed of 6 carbon atoms (92.26% of the molecule) and 6 hydrogen atoms (7.74% of the molecule) with alternating double and single bonds (resonance bonds) and is aromatic because of this. Benzene is a natural part of petroleum, usually <1.0% by weight, but is found in many things used today. Benzenes most common use is to produce ethylbenzene, with over half of the benzene used in the production of ethylbenzene. Benzene is a clear, colourless and highly volatile liquid which is soluble in water at an average room temperature (23.5o).
Genetic engineering is changing the DNA code to express different traits. A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that contains important genetic information. Recombinant DNA is the product after inserting your desired genes. The genes we hoped to insert in the pGLO lab were the GFP gene and the ampicillin resistance gene. GFP was needed so that we would tell if the ampicillin resistance gene had been properly placed when the bacteria glowed under a UV light. The purpose of this lab was to perform a procedure known as genetic transformation which allowed us to genetically engineer E. Coli to be ampicillin resistance.
These chemicals are mentioned as hazardous in the Clean Air Act and Safe Drinking Water Act. The component Benzene is among one of the most harmful. It has been proven to be carcinogenic. It is linked to other long-term effects such as bone marrow failure.
Abstract The unknown concentration of benzoic acid used when titrated with standardized 0.1031M NaOH and the solubility was calculated at two different temperatures (20◦C and 30◦C). With the aid of the Van’t Hoff equation, the enthalpy of solution of benzoic acid at those temperatures was determined as 10.82 KJ. This compares well with the value of 10.27KJ found in the literature.
History of paraben Paraben is a class of commonly used preservatives mostly found in cosmetics and personal care products. Parabens are found in 85% of cosmetics. They can also be used in shampoos, toothpaste, shaving gel, and moisturizers. Products with water can be spoiled by the growth of bacteria or fungi. This can cause problems to the product because it causes mold, malodor, and discoloration.