Drivers for collaboration
Power/Resource balances: the imbalances of power between stakeholders are usually a noticeable problem in collaborative governance (Gray, 1989; Short &Winter, 1999; Susskind &Cruikshank, 1987; Tett, Crowther, & O’Hara, 2003; Warner, 2006). If some stakeholders do not have the capacity, competence, condition, or resources to participate in an equal position with other stakeholders, the collaborative governance process will be prone to manipulation by stronger actors. Therefore, if there are remarkable power/resource imbalances between stakeholders, such that influential stakeholders cannot participate in a meaningful way, then effective collaborative governance requires a dedication to a positive strategy of empowerment …show more content…
So, if there is a prehistory of conflict among stakeholders, then collaborative governance is improbable to succeed unless (a) there is a high degree of interdependence among the stakeholders or (b) positive steps are taken to remedy the low levels of trust and social capital among the stakeholders.
Interdependence: when stakeholders are unable to fulfill something on their own, is a broadly recognized precondition for collaborative action (Gray, 1989; Thomson & Perry, 2006). The final driver, uncertainty, is a primary challenge for managing social problems (Koppenjan & Klijn, 2004; Rittel &Webber, 1973). Uncertainty that cannot be resolved internally can drive groups to collaborate in order to decrease, distribute, and share risk. Collective uncertainty about how to manage social problems is also related to the driver of interdependence.
Environmental …show more content…
Actors have to be subjected to different kinds of accountability. Rule of law: administrative decisions must be authoritative by law, predictable and based on the principle of non-discrimination.
Efficiency: there must be compatibility between the Government’s statements and actions, connectedness across the different parts of the government institutions, both in implementation and opinions, and proper use of resources in order to solve problems.
Expertise: the executive power should have the available resources and the access to use the needed expertise in different
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Keeping all the different jobs of a government in balance can often be a terribly difficult job, the efficiency and effectiveness that a government has can go a long way in keeping everything pointed in the right direction. Citizens want to feel like the government, at any level, is always moving forward and is listening to the voices of its
Throughout history groups have worked together to profit and develop relations. In Asia the countries and groups of people developed the Silk Road, in Rome, the districts owned by the lords that governed them worked with the roman emperor to create a road system. But, these countries who have worked together have sometimes manipulated each other and took advantage of each other. Therefore, when groups work together they can create positive ideas, but in the end have negative outcomes.
An advantage to one agency within the federal bureaucracy implementing a national policy is the accessibility to subject matter experts within the agency. With experts at hand, the bureaucracy implementing the national policy can make indiscriminate and informed decisions regarding the policy. This also allows the experts within that bureaucracy, who have the knowledge of the issues and policy, to make informed decisions when creating policies that are aimed to promote effective implementation of that national policy. One of the disadvantages of having a national policy implemented by one agency of the federal bureaucracy is that the bureaucracy is subject to control and influenced by the president, who can rearrange a bureaucracy’s organizational
Psychologist Irving Janis explained some alarmingly bad decisions made by governments and businesses coined the term "groupthink”, which he called "fiascoes.” He was particularly drawn to situations where group pressure seemed to result in a fundamental failure to think. Therefore, Janis further analyzed that it is a quick and easy way to refer to a mode of thinking people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members ' striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. According to Janis, groupthink is referred as the psychological drive for consensus at any cost that suppresses disagreement and prevents the appraisal of alternatives in cohesive decision-making groups.
Joint enterprise is growing problem in our modern society were teenagers are sentenced because they were present when the offender delivered the fatal blow. There have been arguments for and against joint enterprise and whether the law should stay or be abolished this is because too many young people are being condemned for just witnessing attacks or observing illegal activities. I do believe those who took part deserve to be punished too, just not as rigorously. Personally I believe that the offender who commits the crime should therefore be held accountable and should be punished for it. This leaves us wondering: are the wrong people going to jail?
TASK IV: PARTNERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT Partnering is a project approach designed to allow the construction process to be performed within an atmosphere of mutual trust, commitment to shared goals, and open communication among the partnering members while working in harmony toward mutual goals in order to avoid claims and litigation and establish a win/win management approach. For the complex and large-scale Atlantis project, the contractually associated construction partnering between Laing O’Rourke and NORR along with various other members like Rockwell Group, WATG, EDSA, helped to create working relationship among all of the team members based on mutually agreeable plan of cooperation and teamwork to improve productivity. The main objectives of Atlantis project partnership included reducing project costs and schedules, eliminating change orders and claims, improving communication by developing
Joint problem-solving arrangements: Which included routines associated with adjustment and coordination that, despite economists predictions, were more efficient than market-based mechanisms of coordination. The notion that economic action is embedded in social structure has revived debates about the positive and negative effects of social relations on economic behavior. While most organization theorists hold that social structure plays a significant role in economic behavior, many economic theorists maintain that social relations minimally affect economic transacting or create inefficiencies by shielding the transaction from the market (Peterson and Rajan, 1994).
Benefits and Challenges of Multi-Agency Introduction Multi-agency can be defined as the involvement of different corporations which works together to eliminate vital issues or problems in the society. The involvement of ranges of professionals in an integrated way provides a strong platform which helps to attain a positive outcome for the young generation and the children. The working in partnership the key element of multi-agency, therefore the working of the multi-agency is faces variety of changes, however the perspectives and approach of the agency is supported by the government to enhance social condition, education and health facilities (Atkinson, 2005). The main objective of this research paper is to identify the working process and to recognize the challenges in the working mechanism. Therefore, the main aim is to analyse and investigate the working mechanism and different models of multi-agency.
Introduction This case study explores the acquisition of the Body Shop, which is one of the largest franchise cosmetics companies in the world, by L’Oreal. The main concentration of the case study aims at investigating the impact on business ethics and corporate social responsibility by the concentricity of the Body Shop and L’Oreal and how the general attitude and buying behaviour is distorted in the course of this acquisition. L‘Oreal being the big conglomerate in the cosmetics industry acquired the Body Shop International which is comparably small but having iconic brand of environmental and socially responsible concerns, on 17 March 2006, through a covenant of $1.2 billion. The combination of two brands in a newly formed conglomerate implies a combination of values, principles and associations that might affect a company’s appeal. The verity that L 'Oreal 's acquisition of the Body Shop provides plenty of potential growth opportunities is undeniable; nevertheless the question of how well the acquisition sits in the group of the world 's largest cosmetics company is another matter.
Impersonality are when persons are treated on “merit” principles; all “clients” served are treated equally, according to rules, and records are maintained. The complexity of public policy problems also contributes to bureaucratic independence. A few factors are specialized units, delegated authority and discretionary authority. Specialized units are often assigned responsibility to create or oversee policy that deals with their specialized area(s). Delegated authority complicates public policy problems because Congress and the president cannot handle all issues.
The final result will not always fit everyone’s liking. There can be a lack of trust among the group members. Finally there can be situations in where only experts about the topic should be able to decide. Firstly, reaching a consensus is not always a good idea because it will not fit everyone’s liking.
But if it comes only as a result of people holding back their opinions and honest concerns, then it’s a bad thing.” Dysfunction #3: Lack of Commitment When teams engage in productive conflict they can confidently commit and buy-in to decisions. What separates a productive team and one that is not is that, the productive team is able to make clear decisions and are confident that every one of their members are in favour of that decision. It is common for people to have the mindset to not be committed to something when they know their opinions and thoughts are neglected and excluded from the discussion. Having commitment in a team is more about making sure that every members’ opinions are heard and acknowledged rather than just having everybody’s consensus.
Separation of powers refers to the idea that the major body of a state should be functioned independently and that no individual of a state should have power separately. Therefore, separation of powers means that splitting up of responsibilities into different divisions to limit any one branch from expurgating the functions of another. The intention of the doctrine is to prevent the application of powers and provide for checks and balances of governing a state. It is a doctrine of constitutional law under which the three branches of government, executive power, legislative power, and judicial power are been kept separately to prevent abuse of power.
Conflict resolution as a field of study as indicated has formed hypothetical bits of knowledge into the nature and source of conflict and how conflicts can be resolved through peaceful systems to effectuate a dependable settlement. Morton Deutsch, was the first to form and understanding into the helpful results of collaboration as a scholastic enquiry. In his view, various variables like the way of the debate and the objectives every group in a conflict goes for are crucial in deciding the sort of introduction a group would convey to the negotiation table in its endeavor to unravel the conflict (Morton Deucth, 1985, p.24). To him, two essential orientations do exist. These are competitive and cooperative.
Introduction Conflict is unpleasant, but inevitable throughout life. In any situation involving two or people, conflict may arise. Conflict can be defined as, “any situation in which incompatible goals, cognitions, or emotions within or between individuals or groups lead to opposition or antagonistic interaction” (Learning Team Toolkit, 2004, pp 242-243). People come from different backgrounds and live through different life experiences therefore, even when working towards a common goal, they will not always agree. Major conflict that is not dealt with can devastate a team or organization (Make Conflict Work, 2008).