This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA. The function of the plasmid is to provide bacteria with genetic advantages such as antibiotic resistance. In this lab, the plasmids provided the ampicillin resistance and the fluorescence. If the bacterial cells are grown in the presence of the antibiotic ampicillin then only the cells that took up the plasmid have the resistance gene. As a result the resistance gene will have to keep the plasmid and the GFP gene.
Tetanus can enter the body by; animal bites, skin burns, body piercing and tattoos done with unsterile tools, injection of drugs with contaminated needles, abrasion and laceration, and even circumcision. Once the bacterial spores have access into the body they multiply at an alarming rate, and deposit tetanospasmin throughout the body. If the lesion is deep the bacterial toxin can thrive better, even with no or little oxygen. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin that directly targets the nervous system.
Introduction Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria. Bacteria’s can have different features, shapes, and or arrangements that help microbiologist determined their role in our life (whether they are good or bad for humans). Bacteria can be classified as gram positive or negative (difference in call wall).
Our results from the PCR process were very unexpected, even to the point the control colony had some rather odd outcomes. The goal of this experiment was to choose three colonies from the petri dish that has been exposed to +Amp, and look for any signs of the +Amp resistant gene, blaTEM, within the colonies and decide if this gene does have an impact on bacterial resistance towards the antibiotic. My partner and I decided to utilize a bacterial colony sample that does have blaTEM genes as our control group for us to indicate what a blaTEM gel strand would appear in the agarose gel results. When observing the product of the gel product after gel electrophoresis, we were surprised to find out none of our three colonies had any strands that indicated the presence of blaTEM despite each of them surviving through the exposure to this antibiotic.
Introduction Clostridium Botulinum is the bacteria from which Botox is derived from. It can be found in its inactive form in the natural environment, in things such as the forest, cultivated soils and the sediment of lakes and streams, also in the intestinal tracts of mammals and fish. Naturally occurring forms of this bacteria and spores are normally harmless. Problems only arise when the spores transform into vegetative cells and the cell population increases to the point where the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum begin producing the botulinum toxin, a deadly neurotoxin responsible for botulism.1 Botulinum A toxin is one of seven serotypes (A-G), these toxins are responsible for four recognised types of diseases including infant botulism, wound botulism and food-borne and adult intestinal colonization.2, 3 In all cases, the toxin which is a Zn2+ endopeptidase, acts by blocking cholinergic synapses by cleaving intracellular proteins responsible for the docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane.4 Despite its toxicity, botulinum toxins have been found to have great value as pharmaceutical agents and are used to treat numerous diseases
The streaking technique used was a modified streaking for isolation with a heavy quadrant one. The result revealed that bacteria is alpha, with an incomplete breakdown of the medium with a susceptibility of 17mm from the bacitracin gamma hemolysis. That is why the organism represented by the bar graph was in low numbers because it was incomplete. The other test was DNase agar, it is an enzyme test used to identify if the organism has the enzyme DNA. The streaking technique is a single straight line down the middle of the plate.
Lastly is the evolution of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). MRSA is a bacterium that is responsible for various infections in humans that are difficult to treat due to its development of a resistance to common antibiotics. MRSA is very common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes. Biological Diversity
In this experiment, Tetracycline and Ampicillin were used to test for the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens, lab-grown bacteria. The bacterial colonies showed resistance to Ampicillin; however they did not show resistance to Tetracycline. The results suggested that Tetracycline was much more effective in killing the bacterial growth, in comparison to Ampicillin. It was confirmed that a single dose of Tetracycline had killed the surrounding bacterial growth, as the bacterial colonies around where the drug had been placed, died and showed no growth. The bacterial plates also suggested that Ampicillin was ineffective in killing the bacteria, as zones of inhibition were not present, despite using two disks of this drug.
A plaque assay is a modification of a bacteriophage assay and is used to estimate the titer (concentration of a solution) of a phage stock. A plaque assay contains a virus combined with bacterial cells on the surface of an agar plate. The agar plate inhibits the spread of viral progeny to neighboring bacterial cells which results in plaque formation (lysis of bacterial cell). The purpose of this lab was to perform a bacteriophage assay and to calculate the original stock titer of the phage stock using the known set of dilutions and direct plaque count. The hypothesis for this experiment was that plaques will form on all the agar plates within a range count of 30 to 300.
4. The discovery of what causes a disease was made by Louis Pasteur. Pasteur developed the Germ Theory, this states that a microorganism called the “Germ” can cause dangerous diseases. He discovered the germ in a food conversion, the germ was infecting the food and beverages causing people to get