In particular, Whitehead’s use of imagery, character interactions and figurative language brings to attention aspects of race relations that were and are still often misunderstood or disregarded by society. It is important to note, however, that the oppressed do not remain oppressed forever as demonstrated by heroine Cora’s persisting efforts to break free. Thus, through his uncensored narrative of slavery, Whitehead sets precedence for the impassioned social resistance movements in the modern era by arguing that the most enduring road is
Jr. Baker’s analysis of 20th century African American novelist Ralph Ellison begins by portraying the degree to which the latter regards African folklore to be fact, or at least, reality. The ephemeral joy, the eternal fury, and the wretched gloom of the human project all have reflections in art, or more specifically, African fiction. These sentiments are intertwined in the lived experience. With this established, Ellison then critiques how fiction deviates from reality: a distorted history. A tale applauded by whites as well as documentation for the criminalization of blacks.
Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, cultivates the story of an unknown narrator's advancement towards assembling and adopting his identity. Along his progression of maturation, the reader encounters a dialectic relationship between the concepts of an individual and a community with the problematic of racial uplift. Racial uplift is "the idea that educated blacks are responsible for the welfare of the majority of the race…" (Gaines 2010). In the novel, racial uplift arises from tension between the ideas on an individual and a community, with the underlying problem of recognition. To be recognized is to have someone see one as he or she desires to be seen.
Diana Hayes articulates what it means to be a Black Christian in America. Black liberation theology asks “whose side should God be on—the side of the oppressed (Black people) or the side of the oppressors (White) (Hayes. 83).” The Black historical experience and takes us from the roots of Black theology in Africa, through the revivals of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the civil rights and Black Power movements, to the beginnings of a systematic theology of liberation. The problem here is, If God values justice over victimization, then God desires that all oppressed people should be
To convince the reader of his claim, he uses rhetorical questions, emotional appeal, and antithesis in hopes of shedding light and sparking action on the wrongful situation. First, Frederick Douglass uses rhetorical questions to elucidate to the listener the many social inequalities between black and white people. For example, Frederick Douglass says, “Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice embodied in the Declaration of Independence extended to us?” (para. 1). He is implying that the rights stated in the Declaration of Independence are not given to those of African American race.
Through the various works of historic Black Intellectual Jeremiads and modern civil rights activists, one can understand that Black individuals in America have and continue to be subjected to positions of unfreedom. This social fact— evoked by the oppressor’s (whites) need to keep the oppressed (Blacks) ignorant, thereby disenfranchised and incapacitated— problematizes notions introduced by James Baldwin when he states, “we cannot be free until they are also free.” Though Baldwin’s optimistic intentions of American unity as the result of black and white solidarity seemingly revokes Black agency in our own liberation and leaves us permanently doomed to white recognition of their own immorality, he is correct to an extent. This is because systemic
Du Bois uses many different ways to target the reader. His main purpose in “Of Our Spiritual Strivings”, is to educate mistreated Africans American about demanding equality and rights that were promised to them around the time of the Emancipation Proclamation. Du Bois uses different types of literary devices (mostly personifications) and firsthand accounts stories about injustice to make his point to the reader. For example, Du Bois states, “Will America be poorer if she replaces her brutal dyspeptic blundering with light-hearted but determined Negro humility?” (Du Bois 297). Du Bois is making it seem like America is a person that mistreats African Americans.
Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space by Brent Staples discusses the relevant issues of racial bias and how prejudice against people of color has embedded minds, as it demonstrates the importance of being aware of how we conceive others. Staples uses a contrasting element of race by introducing a white female and a black male. He uses his experiences and other people of colour to display the struggles of racism they face everyday. Staples reveals how people are prejudice against appearance, despite the importance of individuality of people and being impartial regardless of someone 's skin or looks. The story begins with Staples describing his first experience frightening a white women due to the colour of his skin.
Martin Luther King, Jr., asserts that the injustices of the nation must be fought. King likes to compare the African American struggle for equality to the early Christian struggle for religious recognition.
It also says, people have the right to take direct action, because African Americans are getting tired of waiting. He was speaking out toward the clergy, by telling them he was doing nothing wrong wanting social justice. Although some may think differently, pathos and kairos are the most effective devices in “The Letter from Birmingham Jail,” because pathos triggers feelings of shame and guilt, and kairos adds a state of urgency. Pathos is used frequently in the excerpt to evoke shame and guilt in the white clergy. The clergy believes King’s present activities are “unwise and untimely.” He feels the men of the clergy, “are men of genuine good will and” their “criticisms are sincerely set forth.” However, the clergy did not understand the effects of racism on black people.
Mennonites are inclined to do what others tell them as a result of their religion while blacks must do what they are told forcefully or there are severe consequences they face at the time the story takes place. One can infer that the objective of the story at the end was to show that racism is and forever will be existent. Though this can be disputed it is shown through the main character at the end as she states, “and suddenly knew there was something mean in the world I could not stop” (Packer, 28). Vague as it is, the most probable conviction the “mean” concept in the world that could not be stopped is racism. As long as diversity exists, and multiple people of different backgrounds inhabit one space, the discrimination of another will eventually ensue as it is something all human beings inherently have in their heart be it intentional or otherwise, no matter how strongly they believe against it.
In paragraph 10 of “Of Our Spiritual Strivings,” W. E. B. Du Bois develops and refines the word “prejudice” by introducing it as the white man’s defense against barbarism and ignorance before contrasting this explanation with the actual effects of prejudice on African Americans. Du Bois begins by writing that white men explain the “shadow of vast despair” that covers African Americans to be the “natural defense of culture against barbarism, learning against ignorance, purity against crime, [and] the ‘higher’ against the ‘lower’ races.” In other words, the white man sees prejudice as a good and necessary method for maintaining an orderly society. Du Bois then explain how African Americans fully support the idea of protecting society when he