Employee Turnover Literature

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This chapter will emphasize on the existing literature relevant to the study and the researcher will analyze the Dependent variable literature along with the Independent Variable literature and the literature related to the conceptual framework will be reviewed.
The researcher will examine on the concept of the factors causing Employee Turnover and the focus will be on the Machine Operators in a Garment Industry.

2.2 What is Employee Turnover?
“The ratio between the number of employees who already left the Organization, divided by the average number of employees concerned during a specific period of time” (Price,1977) defined Employee Turnover. Different Organizations use various types of techniques to calculate and define their Workforce
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However, Mathis & Jackson, 2006 (Cited in D.M Liyanage et al, Determinants of Turnover Intention of Sewing Machine Operators) argued that turnover involves both voluntary and involuntary in broader sense. Generally two types of employee turnover can be seen in an Organization. They are Voluntary Turnover and Involuntary Turnover. Gomez-Mejia et al, 1997 (Cited in Mabengano, C M, 2003) defined voluntary turnover as “Employees leaving an Organization by ending relationship with the employer for personal reasons.” Employees seeking for better job opportunity, changing their careers, or unhappy with the current job due to poor working conditions, unsatisfied monitory benefits, and bad relationship with supervisor etc… creates turnover intentions within the employees. Gomez-Mejia et al, 1997 (Cited in Mabengano, C M, 2003) defined that “Management deciding to terminate the relationship with its employees due to reasons such as economic necessity and poor fit.” This type of turnover occurs due to uncontrollable factors such as death, retirement or ill health conditions and is unpredictable by both the Organization and the employee.

2.3 Position In Sri Lanka
Apparel industry in Sri Lanka is considered to be as one of the most significant and major contributors to the economy of Sri Lanka which draws a huge amount of foreign exchange to the country whilst the United States and the European Union are
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These theories and models can be used to reduce employee turnover in Organizations. Following theories are relevant to the situations hypothesized in the research under study.
2.9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Theory
Abraham Maslow an American psychologist developed this famous theory discussing what the human needs are that satisfies humans and why people want to meet their basic needs. In a 1943 paper called “A Theory of Human Motivation” Maslow clearly stated regarding the responsibility of employers to provide particular conditions of employment (Including Monetary benefits) to encourage and enable employees to fulfill their unique potentials. (A.H Maslow, 1943)
Maslow in his hierarchy suggest that human needs exist at a number of different levels from the basic psychological needs to higher level needs such as self-development and self-fulfillment. .
Figure 5: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – 1950

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