People may develop biases toward or against an individual, an ethnic group, a nation, a religion, a social class, a political party, theoretical paradigms and ideologies within academic domains, or a species. Biased means one-sided, lacking a neutral viewpoint, or not having an open mind. Bias can come in many forms and is related to prejudice and intuition. Bias on outgroups: When some individuals are categorized as being part of one group, they are considered part of the "ingroup"; others are considered to be part of the "outgroup" Members of the outgroup are viewed as less similar and, as a result “ingroups” may have biases against them. Thus, the outgroup bias includes negative categorizations, feelings, or ideas about people who are not part of our ingroup.
The Creation of an Identity The social norms of society can pressure individuals who do not conform which can lead to the creation of his or her identity. This new identity can alter how he or she react to certain events. The creation of one’s identity can change how society perceives them. One simple change can lead to multiple dramatic unpleasant consequences.An individual’s experiences in life can affect his or her identity in a way that changes how they perceive society. The creation of an individual’s identity relies on one’s personal beliefs.
According to Hunt and Colandar (2011), a word deviant refers to when an individual’s actions contradict with society’s norms. For instance, majority peoples followed norms because society expect individual to behave in morally tolerate with each other. Those failing to conform the norms noted as deviant. In a social context, the task of the society is to blind the action of the social community together. Once failing to act them to the society’s reaction that seem as deviant.
People should be held accountable for their own actions, but when someone influences a person into doing something it is different. When being pressured into doing things people shouldn’t listen because it usually leads into something worse which you can’t
Many aspects of social life could be viewed as taken for granted by members of a group; only a stranger can see what meanings, rules and understandings are operating in that setting. The role of an ethnographer, who carries out ethnographic fieldwork, is to approach a social setting as “anthropologically strange” and produce a “thick description” (Geertz 1973), i.e. an extremely detailed account of some aspect of social life. Ethnographic fieldwork lies central to anthropological research, but undeniably those undertaking it face challenges. The current state of ethnographic fieldwork is one that focuses on tension and conflict, and, arguably, the most significant challenge associated with ethnographic fieldwork today is that “there is little
Some of its advantages include: ethnographers have the ability to act as advocates for the individuals they are studying , holistic approach to research as it takes into account external factors such as environmental and social factors, the ability to investigate complex issues, ethnographer actively participates in the community which can lead to obtaining extensive and indebt results. Although there are many advantages to using ethnography there are also disadvantages to it use in research. These disadvantages include: to complete an ethnographic study it can take long periods of time and due to this it can be expensive to conduct one, it can be difficult to undertake a ethnographic study as people may not be willing to take part, results may be biased if the individuals being studied don’t participate appropriately they may act in specific ways in order to give faulty recordings.Iit may also expose individuals in venerable positions and example of this would be individuals in a health care setting that are involved in medical research of a specific
Secondly, ethnocentrism accepts ones group’s norms, values and behaviours seen as moral, good and proper where as those of groups that differ from one’s own often are seen as immoral, wrong, and improper. Thirdly, it leads people to exaggerate group differences and ethnocentric cultural groups see themselves as superior to other groups, which are treated, as inferior. It also brings about negative affective reactions to out groups such as distrust, hostility, and contempt. Furthermore, it impedes communication and blocks the exchange of ideas and skills among peoples. Gudykunst (2003) imply that ethnocentrism is lower in countries with strong belief in tolerance of others, harmony with others than in countries with a sense of cultural superiority, respect for
A person’s behavior should be considered abnormal if it adheres to one or more of the following criteria: • Behavior deviates from social norms or is unusual (reflective of cultural standards). • Faulty perceptions of reality; including hallucinations (hearing/seeing things that aren’t there), and ideas of persecution (i.e. people are out to get you). • Significant personal distress caused by emotions, especially if they are prolonged or persist even after the source of pain is removed, and if they impair one’s ability to function. • Behavior is maladaptive or self-defeating; actions that knowingly lead to unhappiness and impair one’s ability to function and/or adapt to an environment.
For example, one component of anti-oppressive practice is critical self-reflection by social workers. Critical modern social work approaches fail to identify diversity of social worker’s abilities to reflect critically depending on context, institution (Healy, 2014, p.203), education and personal barriers. A second example of the potential contradictions within modern critical social work is that of empowerment and addressing larger structural systems. For an individual, gaining insight into the power and control that structural systems play in people’s lives can be overwhelming. For individuals facing multiple barriers on psychological, individual, familial and societal levels, facing structural barriers can further contribute to feelings of powerlessness.
First of all what does it mean by being ‘abnormal’. Any behavior far away from the set codes of behavior is abnormal. The actions and ideas which are in contrast opposition to the set standards of society and question its predominating ideology and living are considered abnormal. Some strange behaviors actually make the society to think on their long prevailing set standards and subsequently have the power to create a milieu of rebel. Such a changed behavior threatens the ‘normality’ of the society and is capable of influencing its long convincing inhabitants against its very law and system.