Reasoning can be part of evolving of morals but thoughts of one person don’t affect the other one, if this person didn’t internalize his/her thoughts before. “Reason is always slave to the passions.” (Prinze; Bloom 490) Reasoning remains weak and doesn’t affect the moral values without emotions. Reasoning only tells about the facts about emotions tells how they should be. Although Bloom states that emotions can’t explain that evolving of morals by their own, he is wrong. Because actually reasoning can’t explain how morals evolve by it’s own.
The first defense is that some consequences in the long term is bad. Like lying to people in the long run would ruin your reputations. But this theory cannot apply to all situations, so the first defense is weak. The second defense is that they made a new type of Utilitarianism called Rule-Utilitarianism. This idea does not judge people by the principles of utility but follows set of rules that promotes the most happiness.
Happiness has not been proven as the only end or the only criteria. In order to make happiness the only true end, Stuarts believes that it needs to be proven that people don’t just desire happiness, but that they don’t desire anything else. People infact desire virtues, “not as universal but it is as authentic a fact, as the desire of happiness” (book, pg 11, 261). Opponents of the Utilitarians claim that happiness is not the only end, and its is not the standard of approbation and disapprobation (book, pg 11, 261). However, Utilitarian don’t claim virtue is not desired by itself Stuart’s explains.
Which indicates that the growth and rise in innovation, science, economy, and social concern and association are essential for the development of the human beings. Progressivism makes sure that human beings are working keeping in mind the end plus the long term as well as short term consequences. Theories of Non Consequential Ethics: • Kantian Theory According to kant, the right activity and working have moral worth just on the off chance that they are being done for the sake of duty. Meaning that by doing your work for the sake of fulfilling your duty rather than seekinh the outcome or consequences of your work and activities. Kant says that an exertion is accetable if its generalized and people shold be seen as ends in themselves rather than as a means to an end.
She uses cultural references, imagery and syntax to achieve her definition of self-respect. It is the characters whom we find faults within “Jordan Baker” and “Rhett Butler”. That when we tie our self-respect to objects or people beyond our control we end up falling short. “The dismal fact is that self-respect has nothing to do with the approval of others has nothing to do with reputation is something that
Motivation is the force that pushes us to do things: It is a result of everyone needs being satisfied so that employees have the inspiration and ability to complete the respective task given. So will employees be motivated and perform to their capability by giving them good welfares, benefits and money? Money makes the world go round, it can be considered as an engine to push human’s limits but peers motivation and intrinsic desire to a good job are the real motivators in today’s workplace. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation There are two types of motivation, intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation being employees are interested on the work because it is personally interesting, rewarding, challenging.
For ignorance, Aristotle divides acts that are done by “reason of ignorance and those which were acted in ignorance”. Compulsory acts would be involuntary because they are done essentially under the influence of external forces such as “the wind or by men who had him [the individual] in their power”, which the principle of the action is not “contributed to the person who is acting or is feeling the passion”. It is valuable to clarify, that compulsory actions are actions that individuals have no power upon. Actions such as the ones done by fear or by threats, explains Aristotle, have a different nature even though it seems to be in itself compulsory. An example of this is when someone threatens a relative of a certain individual to get him to do a specific action.
He also does not think you deserve moral credit when you do the right thing to someone because you expect to get something out of it. Kant believes that if you do something that benefits you it’s easy and doesn’t require much effort and you aren’t going out of your way to help someone else. He says that when you do the right thing it’s because it’s your duty and morally right and you know that you did the right thing and made a difference. It required some actual time and effort that didn’t benefit you in anyway except that it’s your duty. Kant feels that we must use reason and logic to get credit and you know when you have done the right thing.
When it comes to the philosopher that is mostly correct about the kinds of personal sacrifices that morality shouldn’t demand on us to make in the name of common good, it is Bernard Williams. He basically states that utilitarianism is too demanding upon us for the happiness of others, where we can’t even focus on the happiness of ourselves. Not only is a person responsible for the things they do in life, but they have to be responsible for the consequences of things that they don’t do in life that don’t bring the greatest happiness to everyone around them. Utilitarianism states that even if someone were to feel a negative way on a subject due to their values or morals, they should dismiss all personal feelings and emotions to promote general happiness. Williams disagrees and I as well disagree with that statement.
By modeling the quality as a success/failure process, Project Reliability becomes an index of measurement to evaluate the probability of project completion within the time and cost target and passes the entire QC requirements. Even maybe looks so complex and lead the managers have a little base on their estimate due to a unclear value of probability, all the proposed method above still become important and worth to