In 2002, the SEC adopted new rules and amendments to address public companies’ disclosure or release of certain financial information that is calculated and presented on the basis of methodologies other than in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The accrual accounting is more popular and be widely used in business world because it produces more accurate and faithful financial statements that constitute better representation of actual circumstances than its main competitors. The major weakness of accrual accounting is that there is some time issue such like the time of occurred and time of recorded would probably be different and it increases the risk of financial information and the risk of correctness. Also, the accrual accounting generally cost more to operate compared with cash accounting
Accounting policy efficiency and reliability Target Corporation’s accounting policy is both efficient and reliable. However, in relation to the ratios discussed earlier, the use of estimates accounting policy is one that may require additional attention. This policy requires management to make estimates and assumptions affecting reporting amounts in the consolidated financial statements which can link to the payout ratio, the return on assets ratio (ROA), and also the earnings per share ratio (EPS). By comparing the estimates, management makes in comparison to the actual numbers presented in the statement, it would support us to make reflections on numbers that look unusual. All three ratios connect to the assertion accuracy since their amount
Forensic Accounting: Dr. Larry Crumbly (2017) sees forensic accounting as a specialty area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigations. In general terms, it is a practice that invites use of accounting skills to investigate fraud and malpractices in the corporate space and bureaucracies, and analyze information drawn from such investigations for the purposes of use in legal proceedings. According to the Forensic CPA Society, there are numerous types of forensic accounting engagements especially when it comes to civil litigations and disputes. These engagements include:
Introduction: Here in this assignment a management accounting report needs to be prepared for analyzing how management accounting can be useful in providing the managerial information for the purpose of decision making. The organization selected to make this analysis is Southwest Airline. It is a management accounting report in which starting from the background of the company, the management accounting system of the company has been analyzed and how its’ providing the information for the purpose of management decisions being evaluated. Background of the company: Southwest Airlines was shaped in 1978 with reason to serve voyaging service via air course. What's more, after consolidation southwest aircrafts persistently succeed regarding productivity, great worker and union connection and consumer loyalty.
Clients must keep records and books of accounts including cash book, sales ledger, purchases ledger and general ledger. Supporting documents such as invoices, bank statements, pay-in slips, cheque butts, and receipts for payments, payroll records and copies of receipts issued should be retained. A valuation of the stock in trade should be made at the end of the accounting period and the appropriate records maintained. Company should record sufficient to explain each transaction and to enable a true and fair profit & loss account and balance sheet to be prepared. At the end of the accounting period, a physical stock-take should be made to ascertain the quantity and the cost of the stock in hand or the cost of work in progress statements and
Mary Aah argument should be tested on goodwill for the first full year. In FASB concepts statement No. 7, using cash flow information and present value in Accounting Measurements, for estimating the fair values used in testing both goodwill and other intangible assets that are not being amortized for impairment. Goodwill of a reporting unit should be tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would not reduce the fair value of reporting unit.
Following the Great Depression, there was a dire need for regulation and full disclosure of accounting records within the securities markets. “Some feel that insufficient and misleading financial statement information led to inflated stock prices and that this contributed to the stock market crash and the subsequent depression” (Spiceland 9). When investors did not have accurate financial information at their disposal, they were prone to making poor investing decisions. The Securities & Exchange Acts of 1933 and 1934 were the first pieces of legislature to require public companies to be audited quarterly and annually. These acts were designed to restore investor confidence in the markets.
I 'm agree with Mayor Bloomberg, because he is doing an audit to find out about the slowdown of the guard at the prison in Rikers, as a result there are guards who block prisoners to testify against two guards that he was allegedly beaten. This should be penalized by the union, for the reason that, is illegal to block a person to testify and beat prisoners.
Wilkerson is currently using the traditional costing system. “Companies that use the traditional costing method assume that the volume metric is the underlying driver of manufacturing overhead cost.” Traditional product costing was established when direct material costs and direct labor costs accounted for the bulk of product costs incurred inside a firm. In the Wilkerson company, materials and labor costs are centered around the prices of materials and labor rates.
Historical inventory “cost” is used in applying the lower of cost or net realizable value over the entire period that the inventory is held. Write-downs are reversed as selling prices rise. Over the entire period of an enterprise, the amount of expense and profit are the same in the income statement on US GAAP and IFRS. However, the inventory and cost of goods sold balances can vary dramatically in any given period.
Professional scepticism is an important part of auditing as it necessitates the auditor exercising their qualified judgement in dealing with occurrences and circumstances of a countless number. (Auditing and Assurance Standard Board, 2012). Since the global financial crisis, there has been increasing importance placed on applying professional scepticism and many auditors have been criticised for not using scepticism in their valuation and assessments of factors like going concern issues, fair value judgements and related party transactions. (Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, 2015). Additionally, the importance of professional scepticism is essential in reducing the number errors found in financial statements.
In terms of controlling, the management of Marks and Spencer has frequent reporting of expenditures with costs to provide a form of feedback. The reactions of managers to such type of data rely on the expectations or the formal budget or planned targets. The management believes in collecting and assigning cost data that is being shifted away from control. There is a recognition related to the repetitive exercise of planning and re-planning for creating a full time job for accountants. The assessment and evaluation of cost data in the aspects of launching new product by Marks and Spencer is about gaining insights and learning ways for achieving the goals of organisation in most effective manner.
The choice of inventory accounting methods, specifically for the case of FIFO and LIFO, has developed into a decision, which includes varying consequences and comes with specific implications and benefits, such as communicating private information with FIFO (Hughes, and Schwartz, 1988, p.42) or tax benefits for the choice of LIFO (Morse and Richardson, 1983, p.125). Every firm and manager has to face the decision of which accounting method to choose, and has to include several aspects into their decision making process and weigh the pros and cons in general.
It is this that justifies accounting history as a crucially important academic discipline. “History, in itself is instinctive and indigenous to all of us” (Carnegie. et al, 2011), whether individuals know it or not, everyone’s decision making process is strongly based on past experiences, and the past is the key source resorted to whenever a decision is needed to be made. The same is applicable to accounting, the decisions made today in all practices and approaches are drawn from the historical developments in the accounting process, that have led the practice