When the first ten amendments were ratified, citizens were promised the freedom of speech, allowing all humans to give their opinion about the government without punishment. The Alien and Sedition Acts, however, prohibited anybody from speaking negatively about the government. Berns, an American constitutional law and political philosophy
Under the guidance of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, Federalists became a popular political party at the end of George Washington’s term. As a proud Federalists in the United States under Washington, a numerous amount of hypocrisy has consumed the population on, “What were Federalists’ views?” A Federalist strongly believed in the power of the national/central government because it would have yielded stability to the country. Instead of a democracy or popular sovereignty, an “aristocratic leader,” would have best led the nation (History in the Making- Chapter 10). Therefore, the Constitution was strongly supported by us. With this “manual” written by highly educated, upper-class men, the Constitution was a governing document that
During this period, the Anti-Federalists felt as though the aristocrats had no particular opinion about our future government, which alarmed the group. Because they saw aristocrats as overpowering the opinions of those who are not as noble. The writer states that he would rather be a free citizen of the Republic of Massachusetts than succumb to a great American Empire. The Federalist goes on to say that unless there is some security of the people 's liberties, the new Constitution will not be successful. The writer had full faith in the citizens of the United States to decide what was best for the future of the
The Anti-Federalist believed that the Constitution granted too much power to the federal courts and took power from the states, depriving citizens of liberties. The Federalist believed that "The smaller the number of individuals composing a majority, and the smaller the compass within which they are placed, the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression. Extend the sphere, and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens" (Federalist Papers, No. 10). The Anti-Federalist wanted a national representation large enough to secure a substantial representation of the middle class, but not a very large one.
Critics are still arguing that such “powerful” Bill had to be debated and deliberated. Secondly, it is also considered that Patriot Act violates the constitutional civil liberties of the United States, especially: right to privacy, freedom from unreasonable searches, conducting wiretaps, using NSLs, search the private property without any notification and detain a material witness or a suspect with no access to lawyer. There are many evidences when the law was used inappropriate towards non-terrorist criminals. New York Times writes: “The Bush administration, which calls the USA Patriot Act perhaps its most essential tool in fighting terrorists, has begun using the law with increasing frequency in many criminal investigations that have little or no connection to terrorism.” This article shows that the government started to use “new” authority under the Patriot Act to investigate cases on drug trafficking, money laundries, blackmailers and child pornography. Justice Department arguments their position
The opposing viewpoints of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists created lengthy debates on how the newly found country would run the government and what rules would be considered the supreme law of the land. The anti-federalists thought the government held too much power and wanted the inclusion of the Bill of Rights (Young, slide 30). Patrick Henry, one of the most ardent anti-federalist, advocated extensively for the inclusion of the bill of rights (Young, “Found Fathers…”). Henry constantly voiced his discontent with the constitution and questioned aloud why the inclusion of the Bill of Rights were not added. As the delegate of Virginia, he led the people of Virginia to reject the ratification of the constitution and promised them that by his efforts and their rejection that the Bill of Rights would be included (Young, “Found Fathers…”).
In the year 1798, President Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts, as rumors of a French invasion and enemy spies frightened many Americans. In paranoia, Adams approved of the acts, which increased the residency requirement for American citizenship that were not free white men of good character. They authorized the president to imprison or deport aliens considered dangerous, and restricted speech opposing the government. On the contrary, Thomas Jefferson, strongly believed in the rights of Americans, so he argued that these acts were an abuse of presidential powers and free speech. Compared to Adams, Jefferson held a stronger position in opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts because the acts granted the president tyrannical power that restricted the activities of foreigners in the country and limited freedom of speech and of the press.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists both have an arguable amount of supporters. I am in favor of the Anti-Federalist point of view. The Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution granted too much power to the federal courts, at the expense of the state and local courts. They argued that the federal courts would be too far away to provide justice to the average citizen. In addition the Constitution allows the government too much power,does not provide for a republican government, and it also does not include a Bill of Rights, which is vital.
The founders of this country wanted to be sure that this tyranny was not present in the laws and functions of this new nation. Even though there is no “federalism” named in the US Constitution; federalism was the government system that created this nation. It was the creation of a federal government overseeing politically independent states that has made the government of the United States so unique. Federalism is “the division of powers and responsibilities between the national and state governments” (Fallon Jr, p. 961) The Constitution of the United States includes many provisions with the powers and responsibilities of the federal and the state governments. These provisions underlaying the division of responsibilities between the national and state government.
Alongside James Madison and John Jay, he wrote the Federalist Papers after the Articles of Confederation failed. He wanted to prove how the Constitution would help all Americans and provided insight on precisely what the Constitution claimed to do (“Alexander Hamilton” 1). Hamilton published the first Federalist