SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
However, in meiosis, the 4 daughter cells may have some genetic variation. This is due to meiosis starting with homologous pairs instead of replicated chromosomes. The functions of mitosis and meiosis are also different. Mitosis is used for repairing cells. For example, if an animal’s skin was scraped, mitosis would occur in the skin cells to allow them to replace the cells.
It is a cell self-digestive, lysosomal degradation pathway. Recently accumulating documentation has emphasize the selective elimination by autophagy of unwanted components like aberrant protein aggregates, lipid droplets, dysfunctional organelles and invading pathogens. There is some evidence in certain setting that pharmacologic or generic inhibition of autophagy can prevent cell death. Autophagy is complicated in various aspects of cell physiology, and its regulatory mechanism is associated with a range of diseases. The regulation of autophagy is complicated, and the process must be properly modulated to maintain cellular
Inside the cell, ara-C rapidly gets activated by many phosphorylation steps to form ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). When this ara-CTP is incorporated into DNA/RNA, it inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and triggers cell death. Thus DNA replication for mitosis is affected and the cells cannot divide rapidly. The first phosphorylation step is carried out by the rate-limiting enzyme Deoxycytidine
DNA is located in the cells of the human body, wrapped in structures called chromosomes. A person inherits is DNA, 50% from his mother and 50% from his father. Any genetic disorder in an individual is usually due to mutations in this DNA. It is an established fact that the each person has a unique strand of DNA provided for certain exceptions like identical twins etc. therefore this process of DNA Profiling can be seen as a useful method of identification with marginal room for error.
P. 9 #6: What are “RFLPs” and what is their significance?  RFLPs are restriction fragment length polymorphisms. If an allele separates two recognition sites and the same allele contains repeating base sequences, the variance in the base sequence repetition length will create different distances between the recognition sites. This allows for two different alleles to create varying RFLPs. P. 9 #7: List the sources of DNA samples used in forensic cases.
Human cloning is ethically wrong; there are many risks involved, which will lead to detrimental effects on human society. Before going into my points, I would like to talk about what cloning is. According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, cloning is “a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity.” (Green, genome.gov). There are three types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is the production of copies of genes and DNA.
Firstly, to sequence a gigantic DNA of a human genome, the DNA should be cut into smaller fragments which can be sequenced individually and the fragments of the DNA are aligned in order and they are cut based on overlaps and this will produce the complete sequence. Cutting the DNA can be done using constraint enzymes and chemically by clipping. The organization of sequences of overlapping pieces is done by a computer The shotgun part originates from the way the clone is set up for sequencing: it is arbitrarily sheared into little pieces and sub cloned into an "all inclusive" cloning vector. The library of subfragments is inspected indiscriminately, and various succession peruses produced (utilizing a widespread groundwork coordinating sequencing from inside the cloning vector). These grouping peruses are then gathered into coting and the entire succession of the clone produced.
Alternatively, known genes from metabolic pathways can be isolated, and either suppressed or over expressed, and the effect on plant function analyzed. Years of field-testing must be carried out as for any commercial cultivar, but must be done in compliance with governmental regulations so as to prevent movement of trans-genes into weedy relatives. Complicating commercialization of a genetically engineered crop are the intellectual property rights associated with the many of the tools of genetic engineering, such as plant pro-moters and selectable markers. The cost of licensing these tools can be prohibitive, making ge-netic engineering currently feasible only for very high value traits. There is currently some lack of public acceptance of genetically engineered crops for human
Applications of RFLP: RFLP has been used for several genetic analysis applications since its invention, like: -To determine or confirm the source of a DNA sample such as in paternity tests or criminal investigations. - To identify a carrier of a disease-causing mutation in a family. ( Diseases that can be passed through generations of the family) Disadvantages of RFLP: Since its invention, RFLP has been a widely used genome analysis techniques in forensic science, medicine, and genetic studies. However, it has become almost obsolete with the advent of relatively simple and less expensive DNA profiling technologies such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The RFLP procedure requires numerous steps and takes weeks to show results, while techniques such as PCR can amplify target DNA sequences in a mere few hours.