Genetic engineering is manually changing the genetic structure of cells by adding a new DNA which has one or more new traits that aren’t existent in the particular organism. The aim of the genetic engineering would be to improve organisms. An example of a genetically engineered organism would be plants that can handle herbicides or crops with higher or lower oil content. Genetic engineering works by removing a gene from an organism and inserting it into another organism, making it capable to express the trait given from the gene. One specific gene is located and copied from thousands of genes, this is called gene cloning.
Pharming What is pharming? The term "pharming" comes from a combination of the words "farming" and "pharmaceuticals." Gene pharming is a technology that scientists use to alter an animal's own DNA, In pharming, these genetically modified (transgenic) animals are used mostly to make human proteins that have medicinal value. The protein encoded by the transgene is secreted into the animal's milk, eggs, or blood, and then collected and purified. Livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, rabbits, and pigs have already been modified in this way to produce several useful proteins and drugs.
The animals are then screened to check which one shows the phenotype similar to human diseases. The two most effective ways to generate mutations are by exposing organisms to X-rays or to the chemical N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Transgenesis Transgenic animals are generated by adding foreign genetic information to the nucleus of embryonic cells, thereby inhibiting gene expression. As against the use of X-ray or ENU, transgenesis uses the technique of injection of foreign DNA or the use of retroviral vector to introduce the transgene into an organism’s DNA. To increase the size of DNA fragments used in transgenesis, scientists are cloning them in yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs).
Some cons might be that the stem cells primarily come from terminated pregnancy. Most people who believe that life begins at conception are strictly against this kind of research. “The supporters of embryo-destructive research want to cross a great moral divide. They are seeking not only to destroy human life made in God's image but also to manufacture life made in man's image.” (Chuck
It is clear that there are both advantages and disadvantages to using live animals for scientific research. Animal testings may improve the understanding of medical knowledge and advance the health of human beings. These benefits, however, using the life of animals and include some inappropriate treatments to those testers. A great deal of animals using in the tests are dead because of harsh environment. In addition, animals are not as same as humans because they have different DNA and size, so the result of those researches that using animal tests are
Some people reason why animal testing is needed, “Animal testing is essential to drug and vaccine research”(ic.galegroup.com). Using animals for drug and vaccine research is necessary because it is used to determine the safety of the medical product or how the drug reacts to humans or how fast, etc. People who support animal testing consider it as more reliable. It says here, “Chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans, and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans. The United States and Gabon are the only two countries that allow experimentation on chimpanzees “(https://quizlet.com).
The nonfiction article “Cloning of a Human,” written by Charles Q. Choi represents the way cloning can be a possibility in the near future. Cloning experiments started when Dolly the sheep was cloned and born, making people want to test on different animals other than a sheep and maybe humans as well. This could agitate people because they would have no idea they can be cloned and many people cannot accept the fact that science wants to go as far as cloning. With many scientists wanting to clone, it has in some states been banned. No one knows what to expect in the future of science and the possibility of cloning humans.
Many people believe that scientists should develop a clone human but government are against human cloning. Cloning has several of prejudice. For example, expanded danger of acquired infections comes from the way that all clones have the same qualities and in this manner may be helpless to a specific kind of sickness. This may result in one sickness wiping out a whole population. Another inconvenience is absence of quality variety.
CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.” It can quickly twist most of the genes in any plant or animal. CRISPR and many other tools are being used in many ways, such as changing the base of nucleotide. Also, scientists called this technology “genetic cut-and-paste technology” so that it turn genes on and off. Therefore, Genetic engineering have both advantages and consequences. People in nowadays are still arguing about the technology of Genetic engineering, but is Genetic engineering really a good thing?
Some might say that this is not true because there is a new testing methods that can replace the animal testing. In vitro (in glass) testing which allows us to study cell cultures in a petri dish is believed by opponents of animal testing will produce more relevant results than animal testing because human cells can be used. In the other hand, we have to remember that cell is the smallest unit in our body. Our body consists of so many organs which work as a system and is inseparable. If we want to examine whether a new medicine will work or not, the experiment should be done in the system that represents the whole human body not only just the cell.