Informal Settlements

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informal settlements. Yet, securing tenancy becomes one of the important challenges faced by the residents of the informal settlements.
While being excluded from formal regulations, squatting informally becomes the alternative way to secure ownership (Arnott, 2008). In other cases, informal renting gives access to housing. There are different forms within the cities. In Africa, for example, renting informally can also be in public housing. Formal housing can become informal housing, and informal housing can also be part of the formal housing and creates economic opportunities (UN-Habitat, 2003).

If informal settlements contribute to national economies, job creation and are a component of the formal sector, are they preventable? What are the
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The World Bank has been strongly involved in urban policy formulation towards the slum upgrading. In 1960, the public housing, inspired by the European cities (2), was the first attempt towards solving the informal settlement crisis in developing countries (Olsen, 2003). A recent study explains that, the public housing could have efficient outcomes, when the government is ready to engage in a long term and large scale involvement as well as willing to invest considerable national incomes. Corruption, political control, and inflexibilities are within the core of the public system of developing countries (UN-Habitat,…show more content…
Actors and Practices of the Informal Settlements

Although, during the last decades, several bodies have been closely involved in diverse urban development programs, their implications are distinct between direct effect through international actors, and indirect effects through national bodies. Since 1970, the World Bank has applied different approaches, shifting from sectorial to institutional project’s development and private sector improvement. Their recent strategy focuses on observing deeply the governmental failure to ensure equalities.

The United Nations have initiated several policy developments starting from 1960(6). The approaches focused on urban poverty reduction, shelter rights, and stimulating participation (UN-Habitat, 2003). Besides, other coordinator parties such as the City Alliance or the MDP play an essential role in urban development projects. The City Alliance was created to imply new approaches on local authorities and national government as well as to improve slum upgrading approaches with an elaborated investment. The MDP provides an assistance on a local and governmental level to optimize the urban management plans (UN-Habitat,

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