E-GOVERNMENT and ANTI-CORRUPTION Corruption In this part of research paper, there is information about corruption in many terms. Corruption varies in different conditions such as actors, time, sectors, resources, materials, places...etc. There are many effects possible to cause corruption and many harmful consequences possible in both society and economy. Although the corruption generally come with illegality, it is possible with legal ways by political patronage and nepotism. Definition of corruption depends local variables for instance laws and culture of that area change the perception and definition of corruption.
Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Corruption is a global phenomenon and exists in varying degrees in different countries. Corruption is not easy to define however there are numerous definitions of corruption in the academic literature. Transparency International 's definition " the misuse of entrusted power for private gains" and world Bank 's definition " the exercise of official powers against public interest or the abuse of public office for private gains" are rather representative of such a concept. However, when it comes to defining ‘corruption’ one must start with the Corruption Perception Index (CPI).
Since ‘‘Aid is an essential source of funding for Nauru’s development’’ (Anon., 2014) .Corruption and regional perceptions of corruption in Nauru has been damaging to the country’s reputation and has created obstacles to local and foreign direct investment, economic growth and will eventually mislead the development and upliftment of the people. Public money is for government services and projects. However, corruption and bad management consume into the nation’s wealth, directing money away from projects and the very people most dependent on government for support. Countless studies around the world (Mauro (1995), Tanzi and Dawoodi (1997), Ehrlich and Lui (1999)…) show how corruption can disturb investment, restrict trade, reduce economic growth and affect government expenditure. There are also studies that show the relationship between corruption in certain countries to increasing levels of poverty and income inequality.
When an official of a government or business is acting dishonestly, we say that this person is corrupt. When things are not going on their regular track, it means there is something going in a wrong way and we called it corruption. Corruption is a serious problem in many countries around the world especially in the Middle East. The key point for the problems in most of the countries is corruption. There are several different kinds of corrupt practices, including bribes, kickbacks, nepotism, and embezzlement.
For instance, in several tiny places like registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, and lots of alternative non-public and government sectors. 2. Grand Corruption: Grand corruption is outlined as corruption occurring at the very best levels of state during a manner that needs important subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is usually found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments however additionally in those while not adequate policing of corruption. The government system in several countries is split into the legislative, govt and judiciary branches in a shot to produce freelance services that ar less subject to grand corruption thanks to their independence from each
Common white-collar crimes in Hong Kong include fraud, money laundering and embezzlement etc. Imprisonment, fines, community service or probation are typical sentencing of white-collar crimes in Hong Kong. White-collar crimes are actually as harmful to the society and economic institutions as violent crimes, hence it is important to know what causes this type of crime. In this essay, I will talk about major theories used to account for white-collar crimes, also discuss about strain theories and its effectiveness in explaining white-color crimes. A proportion of criminologists suggest that cultural influences maybe one of the explanations for white-collar crimes.
As we have already discussed corruption is not constrained to any particular sector, corruption has many dimensions related to economic, political, social, administration effects. Corruption has been a factor for weakening nations, hindering development, raised poverty, etc. Corruption generates economic distortions because the public money is diverted to capital projects where corruption is more. Otherwise this can be allotted for the welfare programs which help in developing a nation. High corruption also results in poor quality of resources which reduces the productivity.
Political party financing and election campaigns can promote corruption. Corruption can be used to reward supporters, buy opponents, and provide support to major groups of voters. Political institutions are particularly susceptible to corruption. Most industrial countries have a foundation of democratic values, transparent processes established, active and independent media. These traditions limit corruption, while in developing countries government institutions are weaker, civil society is less engaged and political processes are less transparent.
Corruption emerges when bureaucrats control state assets to produce public services and goods. The illicit behaviour of bureaucrats arises either from supplying the government with a lower quality commodities at the same cost as those available in private markets, obtaining similar goods at a higher cost, or both. Officials and private actors consent to benefit by hiding information from the citizens, even if the officials” behaviour is deleterious to the prosperity of the society. Similarly, Mo (2001) estimated the relationship between economic growth and corruption by using the corruption perception index of Transparency
Fourth, bureaucracy can comes to social group those who work in bureaus. This might give to anybody who really works in an office, whether public or private. (Page, 1992). “Besides that, the defining of corruption as a mind in politics and government has been the subject of extensive academic analysis and commentary. Corruption, for instance, has been assume to be bribery and like acts, with small attention given to the exact contours of this idea or what the use of this idea added up to the simple list of forbidden acts.” (Rotberg, 2009) Corruption between governments can take place at both the political and the bureaucratic phase.