Blood serves a vital role in the survival of humans. The importance of blood is seen during situations that demand the transfusion of blood or specific blood components. Surgeries, deliveries and emergency accidents are examples of situations that may demand blood transfusion or hemotherapy. An adequate supply of blood units is important in blood banks for them to be able to deliver its function. For the past years, blood transfusion has become a common practice within hospitals.
Thus, epidemiology has a core role in evaluating the effectiveness of measures that prevent and treat diseases and health problems among different communities (21, 22). Examples of such work include the study of Reath and Carey (28) which evaluate the early detection of breast and cervical cancer in indigenous community. Also, the study of Exner, Dries (29) which focuses on the difference in response to drug treatment among black and white communities with heart failure give a good example of using community concept to evaluate treatments. Epidemiology largely deals with descriptions and comparisons of group of people that vary widely in their genetic- make up, behaviors and environments (22). For example, McBean, Li (30) conducted multi- ethnic epidemiological study to determine the differences in diabetes prevalence, incidence and mortality among the elderly of four racial/ethnic groups: whites, blacks, Hispanics and Asians, where Feskanich, Ziegler (31) conducted their study to examine and compare the gender- based association between lung cancer risk and fruits and vegetables consumption.
To secure patient safety with HH as a basic component of healthcare, the global SAVE LIVES strategy: hand disinfection, promoting my 5 moments for HH targets healthcare workers. Allegranzi & Pittet (2009), argued that HH is recognized as the lead intervention for preventing the transmission of antimicrobial resistance and reducing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) and suggested a multimodal intervention strategies to improve HH and aid in the decline of HCAIs. Allegranzi & Pittet (2009), indicated that the goal of the First Patient Safety challenge is to attain an improved HH practice globally with the ultimate target of promoting an effective patient safety culture. Also (14) indicated that HH plays a significant role to the perception of quality of care and its performance among health professionals is critical to advancing the sense of safety of patients during
All cultures have schemes of health beliefs to elucidate the grounds of illness, by what means it can be cured or treated, and who ought to be involved in the process. Technologically advanced societies, comprehend disease as a consequence of normal systematic occurrences, advocate medical treatments that combat microorganisms or use refined technology to diagnose and treat disease whilst some societies consider that illness is the consequence of mystic occurrences and encourage prayer or other spiritual interventions that counter the alleged obscurity of powerful forces. Cultural variances affect patient’s approaches about medical care and their capability to comprehend, muddle through, and cope with the progression of an illness, the connotation of a diagnosis, and the consequences of medical treatment. Patients and their relatives bring culture
Leadership and governance (Governance and Health Care Financing) • To strengthen leadership and governance systems, in order to ensure highest standards of transparency and accountability at all levels. (National Health Strategic Plan 2006-10), (National Health Strategic Plan 2011-14) c) Explain how the four approaches of Public health could be used to attain the objectives outlined in b). Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts of society - The Acheson Report (1988) Therefore, the public health approach principles provide a useful framework for investigating and understanding the causes and effects of Health related conditions and for planning there mitigation interventions through primary prevention programmes, policy interventions and advocacy. This public health approach to prevention seeks to improve the health and safety of all individuals by addressing underlying risk factors that increase the likelihood that an individual will become vulnerable to these health conditions. The approach consists of four steps: 1.
PI is expressed as a percentage (0.02-20%). The main objective of this project is to track the Perfusion index of critically ill patients, which helps in giving more information about the patient’s health data in a more convenient way. We used a Pulse Oximeter sensor and obtained the IR LED values and RED LED values separately and used those values to find the PI Index value. Changes in PI can also occur as a result of local vasoconstriction (decrease in PI) or vasodilatation (increase in PI) in the skin at the monitoring site. These changes occur with changes in the volume of oxygenated blood flow in the skin microvasculature.
To help caregivers understand the importance of their role in controlling hypertension in CKD. 3. TO determine how to improve the management of hypertension in CKD patients and overall quality of life on the patients. 1.7 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research is limited to National Hospital Abuja. The questions in the questionnaire are capable of illuminating sufficient information on the phenomenon under investigation.
However, RBM not only impacts the monitors but also influences regulators, sponsors, CROs, clinical research sites and cooperative organisations. The benefits of the RBM are outlined below and categorised in the following sectors. Regulators: (including the FDA, MHRA and EMA) Accelerate changes in regulatory In the past few years, many guidance such as Guidance for Industry: Oversight of Clinical Investigations-A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring and ICH E6 (R2) Integrated Addendum to Guideline for Good Clinical Practice around the RBM topic have been published by the regulators. These articles set up the RBM frame and provided constructive information to the sponsors, monitors, CROs and even vendors and helped the industry to shift the 100% on site SDV to RBM. Define critical study data and processes Push the industry to focus on key study parameter and risks and ensure the patient safety is well protected.
It also promotes the quick and effective uptake of new tools such as interventions and strategies in preventing TB infections, to optimize the implementation and impact of any preventative measures and innovation practices (WHO 2006:9; WHO 2010a:11). Moreover, it focuses on addressing behavioural change among patients and communities, seeking to alter attitudes and behaviour regarding the prevention of TB. For this it might disseminate information about TB and its prevention through leaflets, radio and television announcements, and posters to the public (WHO 2006:15; WHO
Significance of the Study: It has been documented in several epidemiological studies that healthcare workers such as physicians, dentists and nurses are concerned in the transmission of nosocomial infections.Nurses knowledge and practices about nosocomial infection is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the level of knowledge and practices of nurses about nosocomial infection. In health care settings it is necessary to assess the compliance about control of nosocomial infection.. Regular updating and strengthening of infection control practices should be one of the priority function of all health care settings.The findings from this study will add to the existing literature and may be used in developing interventions to increase infection control and prevention practices. Research question: What are the level of nurses’ knowledge, and practices about the control and prevention of nosocomial infection in government hospitals Lahore?