Tetanus can enter the body by; animal bites, skin burns, body piercing and tattoos done with unsterile tools, injection of drugs with contaminated needles, abrasion and laceration, and even circumcision. Once the bacterial spores have access into the body they multiply at an alarming rate, and deposit tetanospasmin throughout the body. If the lesion is deep the bacterial toxin can thrive better, even with no or little oxygen. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin that directly targets the nervous system.
This can lead to extreme reductions in soybean growth. (Kudzu Bug). The bugs will gather in large groups and attack a host plant. This is done by sucking the sap out of it weakening and stunting the growth of the plant. If the group does enough damage it can cause extreme defoliation.
causes of stomach ulcer: stomach usually produces acid to help with the digestion of food and to destroy bacteria. This acid is corrosive, therefore some cells on the inside lining of the stomach and duodenum usually produce a natural mucus barrier which protects the lining of the stomach and duodenum. Generally there is always a balance between the acid amount that we make and the mucus protect barrier. Due to the alteration in this balance an ulcer may develop, allowing the acid to damage the lining of the duodenum or stomach . Infection with Helicobacter pylori: Infection b Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cases of stomach ulcer.
A major reason why it is important to throw away foods that has gone moldy is because the foods now contain mycotoxins ("The Risks of Eating Mouldy Foods"). Mycotoxins can affect both animals and humans. Consuming that has gone moldy can cause respiratory issues , allergic reaction symptoms, depression nervous-system disorders and depression((Dr. Edward , 2009). 2) Describe a situation in your own life where you found that food had gone moldy. Your description should include where, how long, and under what conditions the food was store.
The effects are red bright skin. In lab, we learned to distinguish two types of bacteria using the gram stain, gram positive and gram negative. Since S. Aureus has a thick peptidoglycan cell wall with teichoic acid, it stains gram positive. Further tests will indicate the bacteria, including the presence of catalase, sheep blood hemolysis, mannitol fermentation, halotolerance, and coagulase, which S. Aureus is positive for all. 3.)
Bacteria can be classified as gram positive or negative (difference in call wall). Gram positive bacteria have a thick cell wall of peptidoglycan (“polymer of disaccharides cross-linked by shorts chains of amino acids”), and stains purple after the staining procedure under a microscope (Todar, Kenneth,
You use cUTI plates as the chromogenic media and find that some of the colonies have turned pink in colour. What information does this tell you about the bacteria in the sample, and why did the colony change colour? [2 marks] This tells me that the bacteria in the sample contains coliforms such as Escherichia coli (E.coli). The colonies changed colour as the enzymes produced by the bacterial cells reacted with the red galactosidase in the agar medium, this reaction causes the colonies to turn pink making them easily
It has a circular toothfilled mouth, thus sucks blood and other bodily fluids. Thus, at last they kill their host. SUMMARY OF HOST PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS • The host provides the pathogen with the necessary requirements and it depends on the pathogen how to use the host mechanism for its benefits. • As the pathogens are capable of causing a disease in the host, it doesn’t mean that they will cause disease in all the host cells. • Due to the various activities of the pathogen within the host, the host’s immune response gets activated and can kill the pathogens in some
4. The discovery of what causes a disease was made by Louis Pasteur. Pasteur developed the Germ Theory, this states that a microorganism called the “Germ” can cause dangerous diseases. He discovered the germ in a food conversion, the germ was infecting the food and beverages causing people to get
Necrotizing Fasciitis also known as flesh eating bacterial infection is a rapidly progressing fleshing eating disease which destroy muscle, fat and skin tissue. Flesh eating bacteria release toxin and destroy the surrounded tissue. This infection occurs in people with compromised immune system. The bacterias that caused this infection are Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, Aeromonas hydrophila. The infection usually begins locally by a trauma that allows the bacteria to enter the body.
Conversely, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are both coliforms, which are able to ferment lactose. Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,
Broad spectrum antibiotics tend to kill the bodies normal flora, which then allows bacterium’s like C. difficile to spread and grow rapidly in its vegetative state. Toxin A (enterotoxin) is then produced causing diarrhea, followed by toxin B (cytotoxin) which causes damage to the mucosal cells. Toxin A and B also induce the secretion of cytokines into host cells, which often cause an acute neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate. Together, these toxins enable the interruption of tight junctions in the intestine and cause inflammation of the colon leading to an extensive amount of fluid secretion (diarrhea). A third toxin has recently been discovered in newer strains of this bacterium called the binary toxin.
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.