An example is blood culture medium (BHI, TSB or Thioglycolate) media that allows growth and multiplication of bacteria which is indicated by turbidity. Types of culture media There are different types of culture media based on their composition and used for different purposes. The main types of media are: o Basic o Enriched o Differential o Selective Basic medium – This is a simple media e.g. Nutrient broth or Nutrient agar that can support the growth of bacteria that do not have any special nutritional requirements. Such bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus and most of the Enterobacteriaceae.
- Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion . - Conjugation : the process where bacterial cell transfer of plasmid and possibly genomic sequences from one cell to another cell by using a special structure called pilus . example : homoplasmid segregants , Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.. Main
These biofilms facilitates the adherence of the bacteria onto their surfaces, which can even be a biomedical appliance, and protect them from the immune system of the host. Organisms on biofilms behave differently than the normal clinical isolates in respect to their growth rate and resistant to the antimicrobial drugs, thereby being a major public health problem (Costerton et al, 1999). They are most commonly found on the indwelling devices or implants. The common organisms isolated are, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis.
Excretion is the waste produced over time within the cells. Fungi’s waste is excreted out via the hyphae. Aflatoxins are a type of fungi that produce harmful wastes products , and are often grown on foods.This fungi is harmful as it increases the risk of cancer. Some waste produced by fungi can be helpful. Penicillium is one of these fungi as its waste product is often saved and grown on agar plates.
You use cUTI plates as the chromogenic media and find that some of the colonies have turned pink in colour. What information does this tell you about the bacteria in the sample, and why did the colony change colour? [2 marks] This tells me that the bacteria in the sample contains coliforms such as Escherichia coli (E.coli). The colonies changed colour as the enzymes produced by the bacterial cells reacted with the red galactosidase in the agar medium, this reaction causes the colonies to turn pink making them easily
In those researches they did surveys, in places like Mexico and Washington’s coast and under the oceans, and saw that due to bacteria’s adaptably their biomass may exceed that of life in oceans. Bacteria also prospers by creating a symbiotic relationship with other plans, like the plants which enable them to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Symbiotic bacteria also play a significant role in producing vitamins and breaking down food that contains
aquatic organisms and disturb the integrity of the ecosystem (Mester and Tien 2000; Puvaneswari et al., 2006) by alters the pH, increases the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).Dyes industries have also a serious role in environmental pollution. Dyes mainly used in paper, textile and leather industries. Pollutant released from these dyes industries cause water and soil pollution. Water and land pollution by dyes industries affect large numbers of people and environment. These pollutants affects in many forms.
It has a circular toothfilled mouth, thus sucks blood and other bodily fluids. Thus, at last they kill their host. SUMMARY OF HOST PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS • The host provides the pathogen with the necessary requirements and it depends on the pathogen how to use the host mechanism for its benefits. • As the pathogens are capable of causing a disease in the host, it doesn’t mean that they will cause disease in all the host cells. • Due to the various activities of the pathogen within the host, the host’s immune response gets activated and can kill the pathogens in some
This results in a lysogenic infection where the phage genome is passed through cell division to all daughter cells (Fig. 2). Phages with this type of growth cycle form turbid plaques on the susceptible host bacterial lawns. When a strain is lysogenised with a phage, it becomes resistant to infection by other related phages that share the same immunity group profile or same repressor specificity. Some phages represent their prophages as plasmids that are replicated and allocated to the bacterial daughter cells in strict accord with bacterial replication and division.
Millions of bacteria normally live in the intestine, on the skin and the genitalia. Bacterial diseases results when the harmful bacteria get into a body area, multiply and thrash the body’s defensive mechanism. Pathogenic bacteria can invade in the body through various routes like inhalation into nose and lungs, ingestion in food or through sexual contact. Once bacteria enter the body, the immune system of the body recognizes the bacteria as foreign intruder and tries to kill or stop them from multiplying. However, even a healthy immune system is not always able to stop the bacteria from reproducing and spreading.