Work stress or occupational stress can be defined as harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the occupation do not match with the capabilities, resources or needs of the worker (NIOSH, 1999). Additionally, it has also been defined as the non-specific negative response of the body in order to meet up with exceeding demands at the work place(Sciences & Terengganu, 2011). Cooper described stressors in the work place in six elementary groups, namely; factors intrinsic to work role, organizational roles, work relationships, career development, organizational factors and home-work interface (Williams & Cooper, 1998). Work stress has been conceptualized with many models. The most widely cited one is Karasek’s job
Workplace stress and mental health are two commonly related issues. The definition of this topic is, according to (Buckley, 2016) as a harmful reaction that people have to undue pressures and demands placed on them at work. Stress in the workplace is quite common nowadays due to the loads that employer put on their worker, when the world is changing globally and competitions are getting bigger, employers usually first will force their workers to put in more effort in their jobs than rather to bring in more employees. Besides excessive workloads, the working environment can also results in workplace stress. For example bullying, sexual harassment, bad communication between staff and a lot more that can induce stress to the workers.
Asserting the general facets of job stress arising in the form of physical and physiological stress, behavioral stress to be arising when the individuals react and interact at workplace; it is depicted in the form of symptoms like interpersonal conflict, emotional conflicts, diminishing performance, boredom and creativity issues (Rizwan et al., 2014). The state of Role conflict results into role ambiguity‘ which arises when there is conceptual discrepancy in the required job tasks and the content performed, employees are not awaked about their role requirements, lack sound direction, may not have enough information to full fill the role requirements due to which employees misadjust in the organization‘s complex structure (Michael, Court, & Petal, 2009). When the employment arrangement is such that there is no clear boundary line established between work and home then Work-family conflicts‘ arise and hinder an employee’s performance (Rizwan et
There is a firm relation between profession-related stress and performance and there is evidence to support that the stress affects organizational and individual productivity (Bradley & Sutherland, 1994). It is a contemporary issue both for the employees and employers and has become an unavoidable factor in the high performance corporate culture. There are many kinds of stresses in human life; but professional stress or the one that is related to job is unique in nature and may become “the silent killer” if not managed properly (Tarkovsky, 2007). Professional stress causes different kinds of physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms that may lead to collapse of human machine. Organizations and employees must deal with the issues of professional stress and should be smart in tackling stress to stay productive.
The motivation and work capacity limitation are key factors that play role in such scenarios as well. (Agolla, Occupational Stress in Organizations and Its Effects on Organisational Performance, 2008) Michie, (2002) determined that severe responses to stress are usually in the areas of feelings (for example, anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue), behavior (for example, being withdrawn, aggressive, tearful, unmotivated) or thinking (for example, difficulties of IF YOU CAN’T TAKE THE HEAT, STAY OUT OF THE KITCHEN 7 concentration and problem solving). Some resources that can be of great help in meeting up with the pressures and demands faced at work include personal characteristics such as coping skills (for example, problem solving, assertiveness, time management) and the work situation such as a good working environment and social support. The Swedish Environment Act (1990) has detailed how organizations might ensure that their working atmosphere is not only safe and stress free but also provides opportunities for involvement, job satisfaction, motivation and personal development. Locke, (1976) has worked on the desirable working conditions that lead to
However, excessive or prolonged stress can be harmful. Stress is unique and personal. A situation may be stressful for someone but the same situation may be challenging for others. According to Lazarus (1984) stress is a feeling experienced when a person thinks that "the demands exceed the personal and
1.9 Operational Definition 1.9.1 Job Stress Job stress define as the response to organizational stress in the workplace environment that pose “a perceived threat to an individual’s well-being or safety”. On the other hand, individual level factors have also been implicated in stress outcomes, both as contributing factors as well as moderators of stress (Finney, et.al, 2013). Teachers’ stress refers to a situation where the teachers are exposed to certain unwanted internal or external environmental factors which obstruct the routine life of the faculty by negatively affecting their performance at work. Minimal levels of routine stress do not have severe consequences, but continuous exposure to excessive stress could lead to job dissatisfaction,
Work related stress is a major health concern in the current state of the economy, where employees increasingly face situation of overwork, job insecurity, low levels of job satisfaction, and lack of autonomy. Although some workplace stress are normal, excessive stress can interfere with the employees’ attitude and behaviour. As a result, it gives a negative impact on the workplace productivity and profits, as well as having detrimental effect on the health and wellbeing of employees. According to Dr. Rosch (2001), the American Institute of Stress, job stress is estimated to cost U.S. industry more than $300 billion per year due to absenteeism, turnover, diminished productivity, and medical, legal and insurance costs. Therefore, there are several
It gives a lot of pressures for them because they have to finish all the works given only for a week. Besides that, control is also the cause of stress. The experience of pressure is strongly linked to perceptions of control. Lack of influence and consultation in the way is which work is organized and performed can be a potential source of pressure. For example, employees are lack of time to finish all the works, lack of influence over performance targets and lack of involvement in a decision making.
In nowadays working environment, stress is an inevitable phenomenon, which employees can encounter while being part of an organization. Stress at work is formally defined by the Palmer (1989) as “the psychological, physiological and behavioral response by an individual when they perceive a lack of equilibrium between the demands placed upon them and their ability to meet those demands, which, over a period of time, leads to ill- health”. Stress can be triggered by external factors, such as the working environment or poor relationships with co-workers, but it can also be caused by the internal abilities of individuals- one’s personality, emotional stability or health conditions- which determine how they cope with the external stressors (Health24,