Although a recent survey found more than half of all inmates had some form of mental illness (4), they had developed that mental illness before incarceration. On the other hand, I did find a bit of information regarding the effects of overcrowding on mentally ill inmates. Because many overcrowded prisons are understaffed in medical personal, inmates who are mentally ill often go untreated. Scholars and mental health practitioners have suggested that the combination of adverse prison conditions and the lack of adequate and effective treatment resources may result in some prisoners with preexisting mental health conditions suffering an exacerbation of symptoms (4). Nonetheless, overcrowding is a direct violation of inmates’ Eighth Amendment rights; prohibition of cruel and unusual
Since these are usually costly components, visiting a prison can be nearly impossible for many families. This negatively affects a family’s and inmate’s relationship as well as their state of mind and ultimate way of life. The ideal structure of the system is to incarcerate less people and treat those in need of help, though the current system frequently does the opposite. An inmate’s mental health in prison deteriorates as they bear inhumane hardships as well as their physical health. Besides the acknowledged violent outbreaks that occur behind the walls of prisons, an inmate’s physical health is often threatened in other ways.
The number of mentally ill prisoners is consistently on the rise. In fact, a 1995 study found that there is a higher percentage of people with mental illnesses in prison than outside of prison (statcan.gc.ca). It's argued that the reason for there being so many mentally ill people in prison is that those who "cannot get mental health treatment in the community are swept into the criminal justice system after they commit a crime" (Abramsky and Fellner 1) and get caught up within a cycle of criminalization. It's obvious that the incarceration system doesn't do much to help criminals with mental illnesses. At most, they are detained in special prisons with mental health facilities, yet even these programs have been proven to be insufficient, unethical, and very corrupted; it isn't uncommon to hear of stories where patients are being mistreated, secluded for extended periods of time without proper care, and removed of their basic human rights.
In order to outlive the prison experience, inmates are constrained to endure great psychological changes. Noetic harm inflicted whilst imprisonment as well the challenges posed have only grown over the last several decades. These challenges include a much-discussed de-emphasis on rehabilitation as an objective of imprisonment along with rigorous policies and conditions of solitary confinement. Thus, creating prisons more troublesome places to adapt and sustain oneself. Adjustment to advanced imprisonment demands particular mental costs of incarcerated persons; few individuals are more vulnerable to the pains of imprisonment than others.
To help with the prison solution it took, Judge Thelton E. Henderson. Henderson stood up for the prisoners who didn 't have a voice, he talked to many people and demanded money from the state so that he could improve the health care in prisons. This ended up with them realizing that the prisons are too overcrowded and they need to do something about it. They found this out after viewing statistics of people who ¨died from an illness in prison or committed suicide¨. This is not surprising that this health crisis is still going on, at the same time the case was happening Obama Care was working on being formed.
However, the construction of new prison facilities has not provided a sustainable solution for the reduction in crime rates in the society. Incarceration has also proven to be expensive. There are several costs associated with incarceration. These include costs of building new facilities, costs of paying prison staff, maintaining the prisons and costs of treating particular classes of prisoners such as elderly and mentally ill inmates. The United States spends billions of dollars on incarceration each year with the average yearly increase in state spending on prisons from 1999 to 2009 being approximately 3 percent (James, 2011, p.632).
“Over two million men, women, and juveniles in the Unites States live behind bars” (ACLU). The current situation in the United States’ prison system is not an ideal one and there is little being done to fix it. Incarcerating that many people has many consequences to our economy and mostly our society. Being a developed nation, we should not have so much people in prison. The United States imprisons more people than any other nation on earth and that is a sign that the prison system is broken and defective.
Physical and sexual abuse, whether it is reported or not, is a problem that many prisoners face, however, transgender prisoners are key victims of this violence. Transgender inmates are 13 times more likely to be a victim of sexual assault/rape than non-transgender inmates (Brown 2014). Allen J. Beck (2014) reports an alarming result of 39.3 percent of sexual victimisation among transgender inmates in state & federal prisons, along with, 26.8 percent in local jails throughout America. For transgender women, most of them are incarcerated in male prisons based on their gender at birth. This raises significant risks of sexual assault/rape from the other male inmates as they present as a woman with feminie characteristics and demeanour.
I agree with Madeline and Julie that the cons of solitary confinement are much larger than the pros of solitary confinement. As the number of incarcerated increases in the US, which is a country with an abnormally high number of incarcerations annually, there are also a larger number of prisoners in solitary confinement. There have been studies shown that correlate lasting psychological damage with the amount of time a prisoner has spent in solitary confinement or isolation. The complete lack of human association and contact for a long period of time can cause severe psychological distress to a prisoner. Solitary confinement was once used as a form of short-term punishment; however, more and more prisoners are now placed in solitary confinement
A study shows that 10% of inmates are victims of sexual abuse while incarcerated, half are committed by their guard. Prisoner abuse is justifiable because the prisoners are already getting punished for what they did. Also because it is not morally right to take advantage of your power or authority. Finally because the abuse could affect the prisoner mentally and/or physically. Therefore I am strongly against prisoner abuse.
It elaborates further on the concept of “jail diversion” explaining a program in Bexar County Texas that is having success in doing just that as well as helping mentally ill lead better more successful lives. The author states that there is a high percentage of homeless mentally ill in jails and too much is expected of law enforcement and the criminal justice system in regards to mental health care. This is corroborated in the readings of Slate et al. (2013) as police officers are described as “street corner psychiatrists” and “providers of “psychiatric first aid”. The author also describes the growing pressures on emergency rooms to treat mentally ill who are over twice as likely to be admitted to the hospital than those with other
Patients who contract the influenza virus while in the hospital have a shockingly high risk of death as a result of flu complications. A recent article from Henry H. Bernstein and Jeffrey R. Starke lists the average mortality rate of all patients with hospital-acquired influenza as 16%, but notes that patients with higher risk factors, such as people who 've recently undergone transplants, have a mortality rate of between 33% and 60%. Though the flu is typically non-life threatening for the general population, the same can not be said for hospital patients who have compounding health issues. Because of the increased risk of death for hospital patients, it would be in a hospital 's best interest to require mandatory influenza vaccinations for its staff to prevent as much transmission of the virus as
In 2014 there were 650,000 kids in foster care, that’s almost twice as much as Kansas City’s population of 467,007. Roughly 58,000 of these children were placed in an institution or group home instead of a traditional foster home. While these children will age out of the system 40% of them will find themselves homeless, 50% will have substance addiction, 25% will have not received a diploma or GED, only 3% will have received any college degrees and 17% of the young women will be pregnant. Even before they are blessed with their so called “independence” the average child in foster care will have an IQ 20 points lower than a child not in foster care and 33% of them will have moved elementary schools more than 5 times. The foster care system in
72% of primary care physicians are aware of their state’s PMP (prescription monitoring program), but only 53% of them use it due to time-consuming nature of information retrieval and the lack of an intuitive format for data provided by the programs. State government should consider an implementation of legal mandates, as well as investing in prescriber education, and taking measures to enhance ease of access to and use of the programs.