Section III. Choice of Research Method: Quantitative, Qualitative or Mixed? The selection of data analysis techniques to deal with research questions or hypotheses and the techniques chosen for the data collection is informed and guided by what we call the research method. Hence, research method is a procedure, and also the analytical techniques to be chosen and the methods to be chosen will also be dictated by the choices of the methodologies made and by the theoretical framework (Sumner and Tribe, 2008). Research methods for knowledge claim and strategies is of three types: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods.
2. There are three commonly used methods used by developmental psychologists that influence our understanding of development, case studies, longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies. These methods may involve correlational or experimental designs. Case studies involve researchers to systematically collect data from observations, unstructured interviews, diaries, personal notes, and information are based on qualitative measures, which has advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of using qualitative data are the descriptive style, narrated by the close observation of the researcher, providing an in-depth look into the developmental stages and behaviors.
They are analytical tools for understanding, explaining and making predictions about a given subject matter. Theories provides complex and comprehensive ,conceptual and social work, how different organizations’ operates why people interact in certain ways . They different ways through which to look at complicated problems and social issues , focusing their attention on different aspects of the data and proving a frame work
Where it uses several stages like; discover, delve, define, develop, deliver and determine impact and construct assumptions that are based on the fact. Then, study the assumptions to verify and create the Criteria for the design or the final idea that helps solve the problem. It translates the criteria into a design or solution. The solution is tested in determine impact stage or it calls experiment and evaluation
Jalal Monfared claims that Qualitative research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research.
By definition a case study is a form of qualitative descriptive research that is used to look at individuals, a small group of participants, or a group as a whole. Researchers can collect data from participants in the study and using participant direct observations, interviews, protocols, tests, examinations of records, and collections of writing samples (CSU). A different take on case studies is that a case study should be defined as a research strategy, and is used to conclude investigation on a problem within the real world. Case study research can have single and multiple case studies and can include quantitative evidence, which primarily uses exploratory research and is used to gain an understanding, which relies on multiple sources of evidence and prior knowledge of the subject (Wyse). Case studies may be prospective, and cases fitting the investigation are included, as they become known to the report.
Research Design This study will use a qualitative, descriptive research methodology. Qualitative research can be defined as an overarching concept of several forms of research which help to illuminate and explain the meaning of phenomenon in social settings (Merriam, 1998). The data collection methodologies included in qualitative research are observations, interviews, and analysis of written documents and artifacts (Patton, 2002). The interview using the guide questions will allow for greater analysis of individual depth and detail. The case study method is the preferred choice of methodology given that it allows the researcher to explore additional avenues of information that may arise in the case study of the participating higher education institution (HEI).
Firstly, both quantitative and qualitative methods involve the use of observations to address research questions (Onwuegbuzie & Leech 2005; Krauss, 2005). Both methodologies desctibe their data, construct explanatory arguments from their data and speculate about their outcomes. Secondly according to McGregor and Murnane (2010), most researchers incorporate safeguards into their research in order to minimize confirmation bias and other sources of invalidity that have the potential to prevail in every research study. This is prevalent in both research methodologies. Additionally, both quantitative and qualitative researchers use techniques to verify their data.
Researchers will need to have a close involvement with the participants to understand their perspective and interpretation regarding on a situation or phenomenon to develop an in-depth explanation. Qualitative research is done in a wide-angle lens as subjectivity is critical to examines the breadth and depth of phenomena. It is often designs in open-ended questions in order to analyse and interpret the data. The method for qualitative research includes ethnography, interview, historical research, participant observation and textual analysis. (Brennen, 2013) With the strengths of the both qualitative research and quantitative research, triangulation research method will be conducted to enhance and validate the research.
Interview is often question-based, with the question being asked by the interviewer and responses must be as explicit and stated clearly and in detail. There are various types of interview but in this study the researcher used Informal Conversational or in-depth unstructured interview. In this type of interview the questions emerge from the immediate context and are asked in the natural setting of behaviour. The questions were modified and changed according to the participants responses. It provides depth knowledge to the investigator to talk about the subject in terms of their own way.