“Their (Mississippi, South Carolina, or Louisiana) framers intended and did disfranchise a majority of their citizenship [deprived them of the right to vote] because of “race and color” and “previous condition”..” [Doc. 7] This lead to the ratification of 15th Amendment. The 15th Amendment protects the right to vote of the emancipated slaves as it says on the document, “the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race, color, or previous condition.” The aftermath of civil war, resulted with good economical changes. The slaves used to work on their master’s plantation. However, when they were freed they spread out and became independent.
However, this act became almost obsolete after President Grant’s term. It would take until the civil rights movement before Blacks could vote uninhibited without poll taxes or literacy tests. The end of the Civil War brought along many changes for African Americans in the South. New legislation caused tension in the South as change swept through. The ratification of civil rights legislation created only a beginning of a change because the Emancipation Proclamation failed to free all slaves, Whites did not view Blacks as social equals, and most Southern Whites would not cooperate with the new laws.
Have you ever imagined what it was like for an African American person back in the 1800’s when they were considered “free”? Back then, black people were used as slaves, and they didn’t gain their absolute freedom from slavery until 1865 when it was completely abolished. They gave Africans certain rights that weren’t completely fair. It really makes you question whether black people were really free in that time. When all blacks were released from slavery, what rights did they really have?
Historically speaking, except for a short time during reconstruction, African Americans in the South were denied basic political and economic rights. As a result of Martin Luther King Jr.’s campaign in Selma, Alabama, the Voting Rights act of 1965 was passed. This act meant that literacy test, test used for voting discrimination against African Americans, were removed from voting requirements, as well as the poll tax, another tool used to keep African Americans from voting. Because of this, the percentage of black adults who registered to vote nearly doubled between 1964 and 1966. The ultimate goal of the movement was to achieve equality, and once African Americans were granted basic political rights, and could vote and participate in politics, their economic and social conditions would also slowly become better.
Its failure was firmly secured in 1873 when the Supreme Court began to undermine the Constitutional Amendments and the Civil Rights Act in the Slaughter-House Cases. Military and political force was used in an attempt to give slaves equal rights to the white man. However, the actions of the South had stopped that from happening. Slaves were free but they were trapped in plantation labor. They could vote but many could not.
I guess when you ask the question, was the Reconstruction a success or a failure? It all depends how you look at it. Laws that were set up weren’t always followed correctly, but laws were still being set up to protect African Americans rights. It must have been a success because now today, they are known as citizens and have the right to vote. But then again, the rise of the Klu Klux Klan and other white supremacy groups, in combination with the Black Codes, began to intimidate freed slaves and push back their civil liberties.
Because of this, the only ruling in the Constitution that dealt with slavery was the Fugitive Clause which enforced Free states to help recapture runaway slaves who had escaped their masters' states. However, that only further benefited Slave states. Slavery was disputed again when Northern states wanted the government to have complete power over trade with the other nations. Southern states depended heavily on trade and feared that the North would get enough votes to interfere with their slave and agricultural
The 13th Amendment was important because it created a constitutional amendment that banned slavery in all of the United States. The Emancipation Proclamation freed many slaves but, did not result in the total abolition of slavery in the U.S. Emancipation Proclamation did free slaves in states that fought on the side of the Confederacy in the civil war, however states in the side of the Union were not legally bound under the law to free slaves. The 13th Amendment called for the abolishment of slavery in the United States in total. The 13th Amendment broke the ice for state level and federal laws civil laws evolving past the current barbaric ones, allowed for the Fourteenth amendment and Fifteenth amendment to be added to the Constitution.
During the late 1800s, because the South had been decimated by the end of the Civil War, .the Reconstruction Period was initiated to aid the South’s recovery. Although the Civil War did abolish slavery and unify the North and the South, the war not resolve racial prejudice, the South’s damage, and the African Americans’ economic instability. The Reconstruction Period was initiated in order to prevent economic instability and the structural ruin, because since slavery was abolished, and the South was completely dependent on slaves, therefore slaves could not work for the South to maintain the economy, and slaves also could not fix up the damages done to the structures done to the South during the war. By starting the Freedmen’s Bureau and passing
Reconstruction - the federal government plan to solve the issues formed from the end of the Civil War – can be divided into 2 parts: physically rebuilding the South and reconstructing the Southern Society. The goal of the reconstruction politically was to integrate Southern states/rebel states back into the U.S., and socially was to integrate the freed slave population to the society. However, ex-confederates of the South resisted this because of the fear of complete turnover of their lives, and to maintain the social hierarchy, where African Americans remained at the bottom by default due to their race. Several organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan were formed to resist reconstruction and preserve white supremacy. Congress responded to the resistance by establishing the Freedmen 's Bureau, whose aimed was to build public schools and universities, provide food and medical care, political equality between blacks and whites and equal access to the judicial system.
Throughout the history of America, blacks have continuously been perceived as inferior to whites. At first, due to the legality of slavery, blacks were not identified as people, but property. This was a regular practice until the passing of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments, which granted rights to black inhabitants of America. Hypothetically, these rights were to make newly freed slaves equal to their white cohabitants, but this wasn’t the case. Court cases, laws, and illicit practices, ensured that blacks would remain inferior to whites.
Liberty, equality and justice, were not always rights given to all people born in the United States of America. Throughout the history of this great nation, African Americans have been targeted and denied the ability to exert the rights to vote. Although the denial of these rights is noticeable through our history books, one of the outstanding, and conceals the others rights, this being the right to be equal as there Anglo brothers. The right to vote is one example where blacks were denied the right to exert their freedom. The Voting Right act signed to law by President Lyndon Johnson on August 6, 1965, provided for a direct federal protection that enabled African Americans to register to vote, and to vote without discrimination on the basis of race, and color.
Southerners needed to stay over African Americans as much as they could now that they couldn’t have slaves. Also, towards the end of reconstruction, Black codes were revised into the Jim Crow Laws. African Americans were still in muddy waters even though having been freed. A third effect of the CIvil War was was the ability to more publicly, legally, and easily help out African Americans. For instance, the Freedmen 's Bureau.
The reconstruction was a period during US history, which took place after the Civil War when the South restructured into the Union from 1865 to 1877. The end of reconstruction was a justification that freed all African Americans from slavery. Although they had set this decision and law, African Americans still suffered from social, economic and political barriers, which caused major tension between blacks and whites. The civil rights act of 1875, racial discrimination was banned from public facilities, such as schools or public transportations. The fourteenth amendment protected people against violations of their civil rights b states, not by the actions of the individuals.