While Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy all had the same same Cold War intention of ending communism, their ways of achieving their goal were different.The Cold War was an angry dispute between the United States and the Soviet Union about whether we should spread or contain communism (Ayres 817). According to Edward Ayres in American Anthem: Reconstruction to the Present all three Presidents used some form of Economic Aid, how we help other countries financially; Military Aid, how we help other countries’ militaries; and finally, Military Use, how we utilise our military (Ayres 817).
The Containment Policy was created by George Kennan in 1947 and was the United States’ main method of fighting against the Soviet Union during the Cold War (https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/kennan). Because the Americans were very against the idea of communism, the containment policy was needed to help stop the spread of communism growing into other countries. The United States wanted more allies, and so provided resources to multiple countries to stop them from falling to communism gained their trust. The containment policy largely contributed to the Cold War because it formed the Marshall Plan, which helped to shape the NATO and the Truman Doctrine made the war more stressful.
Though the end of World War II made the United States a global superpower, it also prompted new challenges for the President to tackle. Diverging aims for the postwar world divided the previous World War II Allies, and sparked a Cold War which heightened tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The struggle to contain Communism abroad as well as the unresolved issue of crippling inequality at home called for a strong leader to make effective use of his authority and firmly resolve these issues. From 1945 to 1964, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson emphasized Cold War Liberalism, which supported equality and democracy while combatting Communism abroad. Similar to Social Welfare Liberalism
Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States of America, came into presidency in the midst of an intense Cold War. He came up with a strategy called the Reagan Doctrine, whose aim was to contain the global influence of the Soviet Union and to end the Cold War. It also tried to prevent any more expansions the USSR might make throughout the world. During the majority of the Cold War, there were no direct open military conflict between the US and the Soviet Union. However, there were many instances in which the Cold War may have turned into a real war.
To the Americans, this was not a trivial border dispute between two parties somewhere on the map. Instead, they feared that it was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world - they believed that should one country fell to communism, then others would follow, much like a domino effect. Hence, it is in US’s stance to intervene in this conflict, as per their containment policy. (In fact, in April 1950, the NSC-68, a National Security Council report, had recommended that the US use military force to “contain” communist expansionism “regardless of the intrinsic strategic or economic value of the lands in
Eisenhower believed that focusing on a military during the Cold War could escalate the nuclear arms race to an all-out nuclear war, but JFK thought America 's Cold War strategy needed to be remilitarized. This is similar to when Clinton refused to authorize missions to eliminate Osama Bin Laden, but when Bush is elected, he declares War on Terror while expands the size and authority of all national security organizations Inside the U.s government. Keck also mentions Obama’s efforts , “Obama, like Eisenhower, quickly began prosecuting the war against al-Qaeda largely by relying heavily on America’s technological advantages and more aggressive covert operations run largely by the CIA…the Obama administration is worried that it(the strategy)will eventually face blowback from its actions and therefore hopes to rein itself in. This is prudent strategy, but it remains to be seen whether this attempt will succeed or, like the U.S. during the 1960s, Washington will unnecessarily re-escalate its campaign again.” Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Obama’s efforts against the War on Terror reflect the efforts put forth by Harry
In the 1960s, communism was a big fear. There was nuclear war tensions with the Soviet Union, and you also had other communist countries including Vietnam, China, and Cuba. You also had fears of economic collapse. Harrison Bergeron represents fears of Communism because in the Utopian” society the government tries to make everybody equal and control people against their will. They also bring the smartest people and bring them to the level
Arthur Schlesinger Jr, states that ‘the Cold War in its original form was a presumably mortal antagonism, in the wake of the Second World War, between two rigidly hostile blocs (1967, 22).’ The quote embodies the power struggle that was played out between America and the Soviets during the post war era. Historians and theorists have been drawing from ideologies and different international world orders to help gain an accurate understanding of the origins of the Cold War. In a bipolar world, as described by Waltz, neither major power seeks approval with one another; they just have to cope with one another, however within great-power politics who is threatening who can create feelings of uncertainty between them and then a Cold War is born (1988, 622). The orthodox argument makes the claim that the United States was responding to the threatening nature of the USSR, despite trying to integrate
Ronald Reagan was able to reduce tension between America and the Soviet Union but he is not the best leader because of the Iran Contra Affair in which it showed that he is easily influenced by other people.One of the foreign policies was military build up.Because the Soviet Union decided not to abide by the SALT II treaty which was to maintain nuclear equalness between two main superpowers, it was no surprise when Reagan also bagn defense building. The main objectives of the buildup were to strengthen military, encourage and gain trust from the European allies that US will not abandon them. The defense budget in 1981 was $171 million to $300 billion in 1985. The increase in budget has many positive results such as a military upgrade and modern
“The way we choose to see the world creates the world we see”(Barry Neil Kaufman). Different perspective lead humans to make decisions that lead to conflicts, such as the Cold War. The Cold War was a rivalry between the U.S.S.R (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and the U.S.A(United States of America). Cold War had no direct military actions between the countries. Competing perspectives and human decisions led to violent conflicts throughout the 20th century.
The INF Treaty eventually led to the destruction of 859 American and 1,836 Soviet nuclear missiles. (Hoekstra Database) The amount of courage and optimism Regan put towards ending Communism was remarkable. He was the first president to ever really attempt to make progress with Gorbachev because many other presidents and world leaders had a great fear of Gorbachev. Regan did not fear Gorbachev, actually from his first day in office, he tried to mend the relationship between the two nations. Many people thought Regan or any other U.S. president did not have the ability to end the cold war.
One of the major effects that over extended the powers of American foreign policy is that it gave the US a reason to interfere with any war they wanted as long as it involved communism. Therefore, this policy can be easily abused as it can serve for a way to allow the US obtain its national interest, rather than just fighting for democracy. This was a major factor in the Korean War since the South Korean government that stated they were democratic, were actually controlled by a dictator. American policy became highly criticized because it implied that the US only used the policy of containment to satisfy its own
The long fall of communism was a necessity to the nature of history and peace. The point of the USSR was to compete with the United State until it would eventually destroy. Little did they know that the USSR and the rest of the Soviet Union and communist would fall instead because of lacking stability and leader. It was known that the first 2 nuclear powers were making bets that the other wouldn’t attack the other, but they would retaliate if they did. This then called for scientific and industrial advancements, investments, etc.
The Cold War put both of these nations at test to see who could succeed the most. Disagreement between the two superpowers, the U.S and the U.S.S.R is what started the Cold War, just as disagreement is the start of any other war. Disagreements grew and became feuds and feuds caused tension, which created an uncomfortable position and lifestyle for everyone. When the United States and the Soviet Union’s alliance ended, they realized they had different viewpoint on how nation’s should
Reagan’s tactics was to rearm and strength the military, the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger acknowledged it could crippled Soviet Union’s Military and economy causing disorder. The President supported the anti-communist countries and repressive regimes and United Sates assisted military dictators who were elected to the office (932). President Reagan crippled communism influence around the world.