There are four major decision-making models- rational, bounded rationality, incremental and garbage can models. In the following, pros and cons of each model will be discussed and explain why Incremental and Garbage Can Models can best describe the decision made during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Rational model is a cognitive process, which the decision-makers run through rational steps. The steps refer to definition of problems, identification and evaluation of alternative policies, implementation of the best policies among all and finally monitoring of effects, ran through a unitary decision-maker (Taylor, 1998).
Theoretically, the model can search for the best solution to the problem based on the comprehensive consideration. The step-by-step approach can help the decision-maker to resolve difficult questions in complex situation (Simon, 1979).
However, the real environment is sometimes too complex. The decision-maker is subject to the insufficient information, time limitation and intelligence of himself. These results in misidentification in problems, incomprehensiveness in considerations of alternatives and wrong judgment in adopting the best approach. The problem cannot be ‘perfectly’ solved as expected.
Recognizing the partiality of information, bounded rationality model requires the decision-maker to adopt the ‘first alternative’ that is ‘good enough’ but not ‘the best’ to satisfice the problem (Simon, 1957). There is no need to consider all alternatives and the