A policy argument is the major vehicle for communication policy-relevant information and an important source of knowledge in reference to how policies are made and put into effect. The ability to organize, structure, and evaluate a policy argument is crucial to critical analytical thinking. (Dunn, 2012) The purpose of the two policy argument maps is to compare and contrast different modes of reasoning framing policy problems, which arise at all stages of the policy delivery process.
1. Collective decision making, such as determining the level of public goods, differs from standard decision making within a household in two important ways. First, there is a problem of eliciting preferences. If the amount that individuals have to pay depends on their statements, they may tend to understate their true preferences. If the amount that individuals have to pay does not depend at all on their statements, they may tend to overstate their true preferences.
It is a systematic method that utilizes knowledge, measures, and environmental analysis to produce the most ideal solution. Each decision is analyzed based on its possible consequences with an emphasis on short and long-term solutions. These processes require ample amounts of information, time, and people. While quality solutions are produced, the willful choice model does not allow for flexibility regarding environmental changes such as technology and healthcare policy. Internal changes including turnover also negatively impact the rational decision process.
John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis John F. Kennedy acted to the best of his ability to solve the Cuban Missile Crisis, whether his powerful speeches, creating a committee, or his agreements with Khrushchev. The crisis began on October 15, 1962, when the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, only ninety miles from Florida. The United States reacted by putting a quarantine, which did not imply a declaration of war like a blockade did, around Cuba. The Soviets then withdrew the missiles, ending the crisis. During the crisis, Kennedy took many important actions that led to the final agreement.
"A leader is a person who decides; sometimes he decides right, but always he decides.” As this anonymous quote demonstrates, leadership and decision making are inextricably linked. Leaders are often called upon to make important decisions which will have far-reaching impacts on the lives of many people. Because of this, it is essential that those who wish to become great leaders work diligently to cultivate their decision-making skills. Aspiring leaders can learn to make positive decisions by studying the traits of the great decision makers of history, such as Rosa Parks, Cesar Chavez, Marie Curie, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
One of the most common action that businesses as well as individuals needs to face on a daily basis is a decision making process. Some of the choices can be difficult, other very simple , yet no matter on the situation these choices can have a large impact on our future life. As we are all aware, conflict can occur very fast and easily, so for the same reason it is important to learn how to effectively deal with these kind of problems. There are many different techniques which we can use while reducing the tension , yet the six step model process is known as the most effective.
Rhetorical Analysis: The Mcdonaldization of Society George Ritzer's characterization of an American society in his essay The Mcdonaldization of Society offers a very astute insight into the future. Written over 20 years ago in 1993 the essay still is prodigiously pertinent today, interestingly perhaps more so today than ever before. The concept behind Mcdonaldization can be seen as “the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world” (George Ritzer 1). The essay does not infer that society is related to Mcdonalds in anyway, rather the essay looks at the structural format of the Mcdonald type organizations that represent the mass production assembly line style of organizations that are primordially fixated on produce quantity even if it comes at the price of quality. This is reason George Ritzer believes that American culture and life has become homogenized along a streamlined set of rational, efficient and impersonal principles.
The Cognitive Model- This model proposes that participation in decision making improves that upward and downward flow of information. The idea behind this model is to bring a better pool of information by using all levels of participation. In this case, bringing important information from the associates and information from managers can help to find a common solution helping the organization to have a better knowledge of what is going on and how to problems from the main roots. Figure 5.
Workers have to follow strict commands set by the government to make sure that the policy is implemented to practice the way it was set out to. The problem with this is that it leaves no place for flexibility. Discretion is one of the concepts that are crucial for a street-level bureaucrat to work effectively. As seen in this book, a bottom-up model is when the government set out policy which gives workers the freedom to implement it, allowing them to be flexible with the local needs. In terms of street-level bureaucrats, they are the experts in their fields and therefore have the most knowledge and can identify the best way to implement the policy.
According to Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis the “modern design theory, the rational design problem is reduced to selecting among a set of given alternatives, each of which has a given set of consequences.” Taken with the game theory urged by Allison and Zelikow it should result in “optimal choices in narrowly constrained, neatly defined situations. In these situations, rationality refers to an essentially Hobbesian notion of consistent, value-maximizing reckoning or adaption within specified
In the political arena, incremental decision making may be in order to prevent widespread disapproval of proposed changes. Rainey (2014) states, “Incrementalism in decision making means concentrating on increments to existing circumstances, or relatively limited changes from existing conditions” (p. 189). This decision-making policy gives those who are making the decision the ability to maintain support for the proposed changes because they are not drastic, and allows for continued modifications of those changes while in process. This has drawbacks because it may allow undue influence of decisions by outside factions. This influence may alter the course of decisions being made both in positive and negative ways.
Being Responsible: D.A.R.E WHOOSH!! a police car sped by me at record-breaking speed, which reminded me of the police officer who came every Wednesday to teach and tell about Dare. D.A.R.E stands for define, assess, respond and evaluate. Dare is something everyone in the world should know about! It teaches many things, from alcohol to bullying.