Pros And Cons Of Decision Making Model

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There are four major decision-making models- rational, bounded rationality, incremental and garbage can models. In the following, pros and cons of each model will be discussed and explain why Incremental and Garbage Can Models can best describe the decision made during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Rational model is a cognitive process, which the decision-makers run through rational steps. The steps refer to definition of problems, identification and evaluation of alternative policies, implementation of the best policies among all and finally monitoring of effects, ran through a unitary decision-maker (Taylor, 1998). Theoretically, the model can search for the best solution to the problem based on the comprehensive consideration. The step-by-step…show more content…
The process is more flexible and direct that agreement among decision-makers but not scientific analysis determines the policies adoption (Anderson, 2010). Yet, there are no incentives for achieving long-term goals. The decision is made on each issue and the decision-makers need not to consider the consistency to the long-term goals. There is no guide to decision-makers to arrive at the adjustments (Jones, 2004) and the theory cannot be empirically proved. Garbage Can model is in ‘organizational anarchy’, which the decision-makers are disconnected with problems and solution. There is no systematic prioritization in problem-solving that many problems compete to enter the agenda, but some of them are never treated (Cohen, 1972). The model is applicable when the capacity of the authority is diminished (Grande, 2002). The unpredictable outcome may represent the more flexible ‘confluence of streams of possibilities’, which is better than a ‘best option’ in modern governance. Without a formal procedure, the contributory factors to the process are difficult to conclude. Preferences and values of decision-makers vary and are inconsistent. The discussion may be hindered and the effectiveness of the model is limited (Guy,
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