To what extent is the relationship of of psychological capital with turnover intention, job satisfaction and job performance? When PsyCap will be used as moderator what will be the relationship between perceived politics and outcomes such as the relationship will be weaker when psychological capital is high? The questions are made to find out the relationship between independent variables i.e. Self-efficacy, Hope, Optimism, Resilience and dependent variable employee engagement from the employees of Allied Bank, Askari Bank and Bank Al Habib of
In order to determine the appropriate size and presentation of a price reduction, it is important to gain insight into the consumers’ price perception processes (Teunter, 2002). She notes that three theories have particular relevance to sales promotion; that is threshold theory (Weber’s law), adaptation-level theory, and assimilation-contract theory. She states that threshold theory (Weber’s law) is concerned with the question of how much of a stimulus change is necessary for it to be noticed by a consumer. She cites studies which demonstrate that there is a region of price insensitivity around a brand’s expected price within which price changes do not significantly affect purchase probabilities. Price differences outside that region, in contrast,
Rational Choice Theory, in layman terms sees people as maximizers of self-interest who engage in a cost-benefit calculation to achieve a better outcome over a worse one (Lim, 78). The self-interest of an individual is subject to change, based on the surrounding conditions. This is further explained by the assumption that rationality can be institutionally, culturally or socially defined (Lim, 82). Hence, it can be said that rational choice theory takes into account the effect of the environment on the decision making capability of an individual. This is also referred to as the ‘’thick variant’’ of rationality and using this variant enables this theory to be applied on both micro and meso-levels.
Support and confidence These two approaches lack some specific rule or patterns. Identifying low support and confidence improves the coverage but results in huge amount of rule. Thus some approaches have been proposed to address these problems. For frequent patterns,two approaches are used to reduce the number of patterns. The coverage of resource can be specified.
Third, a firm can employ differentiation, in which the act is distinguished from other similar but more offensive actions (Benoit, 1997). The issues of differentiation are referring on how the organization handle the actions and makes them look different from other similar but less desirable actions. A fourth way of reducing offensiveness is transcendence, which attempts to place the act in a more favorable context (Benoit, 1997). Transcendence allows the firm to reduce offensiveness by placing the act in the state of a better quality that go beyond usual boundaries. Fifth, those accused of wrong-doing may decide to attack their accusers (Benoit, 1997).
The pursuance of a new strategy inevitably exposes an organisation to some risk, and an evaluation of the risk factors will help to determine the acceptability of a particular strategy. Lynch suggests that the analysis of business risk has two principal components, each of which has a variety of associated techniques. These are financial risk analysis and sensitivity analysis. Financial risk analysis looks specifically at the financial risks of strategic options that have emerged from the strategy choice process. The type of analysis is relatively familiar, according to Lynch (2003) types of financial risk analysis include: Cash flow analysis, Break-even analysis, company borrowing requirements, financial ratio analysis, and currency analysis.
The opposite “pole” is pure uncertainty. Between these two extremes are problems under risk. The main idea here is that for any given problem, the degree of certainty varies among managers depending upon how much knowledge each one has about the same problem. This reflects the recommendation of a different solution by each person. Probability is an instrument used to measure the likelihood of occurrence for an event.
Rosa, & Webler, 2001). Risks are ranked according to their priority of most critical to least critical in order to establish a basis for allocating critical, limited resources available in the organization (Fadun, 2013 & Keegan, 2004). Strategies or response are: 1) Risk Avoidance which is the altering a plan so that the circumstances that may give rise to the risk no longer exist but other aspects may incur such as additional costing for converting the plan or adjusting certain requirements (Keegan, 2004) . 2) Risk Control or Mitigation which is taking steps to reduce the probability or negative impact of the risk (Mogaud, 2000). 3) Risk Transference which, is the shifting of ownership and impact of a risk to a third party who is willing to accept the responsibility such as, outsourcing to subcontractors (Magoud, 2000 & Renn,
Generally, there are two paradigms for consumer decision-making process. First paradigm is the rational paradigm. This rational paradigm taken decision-making process based on all available information and the decision is made based on ‘cost-beneﬁt’ consideration for each alternative of decisions (Solomon 2012). Second paradigm is the irrational paradigm. The irrational paradigm refers to why consumers often do not choose the rationally best product that available at the market.
Likewise, high self-esteems tend to underscore the confirmatory when met with disappointment. The generalized finding of self-esteem is that low self-esteems are more easily inclined to external dynamics. Low self-esteem is reliant on the acknowledgment of positive appraisals from others. The offshoots are that they are probably having more high self-esteems to ask for consent from others and more suscepttical to follow to the beliefs and behaviors of others. At high echelon, low self-esteems are concerned with satisfying others and take unpopular actions’ than those of high self-esteems.