The detergent attaches to the cell membrane and capture the protein and lipids of the cell membrane causing the cell to rupture. Then, the cell contents and DNA are released to the outside of the cell. The lysis buffer added causes the double stranded DNA in the cell to become single stranded DNA by disrupting the hydrogen bond between the bases. Next, acid is added to neutralize back the DNA to form double stranded DNA again. After centrifuge, the supernatant is collected as that is the plasmid while the pellet is the debris including protein and lipids.
Amir Ahemedin Ms.Buckley Genetics 11/06/15 Transformation of E.coli Lab Purpose The purpose of this lab is to genetically engineer the E.coli strain by introducing two genes, the green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the ampicillin resistant gene (AMP). Then observe whether or not the E.Coli strain would take up these genes and become fluorescent. Background Information In this lab, bacterial transformation was one of the three processes that occurred when genetic material is introduced to a bacterial cell. Bacterial transformation is important because it allows for the cloning and movement of DNA between strains. This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA.
Basically, the bottom layer is the aqueous layer while the upper layer is the organic compound. However, this situation may be vice versa due to the relative densities of the two solutions. The extraction process is used to repeat in several times in order to ensure all of the organic compounds are fully drained out. Granular sodium sulfate will act as drying agent to remove the last traces of water from organic
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
Desalination through reverse osmosis removes the salts from the water with the help of membrane. These membranes are non porous and allows certain materials to pass through them. The holes in the mesh of reverse osmosis membrane are of the size that allows only water molecules to pass through them, leaving behind the salt molecules. Salt is a prospective by-product of desalination by reverse osmosis. High operating pressure is required to push the water through these membranes.
Lab 3 – DNA extraction and visualization Journal -Madhu Thalari. 1.Describe the laboratory exercise as you interpreted it.? Ans: This lab has given me methods to extrct DNA from both plant cells and animal cells. The main steps that are followed in both methods made me understand the reasons behind them. In order to extract DNA we need break the barriers(cell wall and cellmembrane), remove water, protiens and other unwanted material, make sure that the chemical we used should not damage DNA that we need and add flouroscent material to visualize the DNA.
Abstract: Molecular analysis of DNA encompasses a series of separation, amplification and detection techniques that are used to determine the source of origin of an organism’s tissue sample. It correlates genes’ sequences with their functions, and allows the identification of the unknown organism. This study was done to see whether the techniques of molecular genetics like extraction and polymerase chain reaction could be used to find the animal whose tissue were sampled. GENEIOUS software was used to analyze and align the electropherograms results before GenBank and BLAST were used to identify the unknown DNA sequence by comparing it to a set of already known sequences. The results indicated that the better the fragmentation of the DNA sequences were in the PCR, the better it would be assayed by electrophoresis and the more samples could be used in the CSR; thus, the more accurate the sequences would be.
Hence, a calcium chloride and cotton were filled inside a drying tube. The condenser was wrapped with parafilm and a paper towel to avoid moistures from entering. The reagent will act as nucleophilic addition to acetone and work up with hydrochloride acid to synthesize 2-methylhexanol. Throughout this process, the solution turns dark grey and develop white precipitates. This step indicate that Grignard reagent was generated, and the extra white precipitates were magnesium.
Compare the result to the chart on the back of the urinary pH test strips bottle, and record data. Clean the stirring rod with water before moving on to the next test tube. Repeat this process for each increment (2 mL, 3mL, 4mL) Figure #1: Picture of bean solution mixed Figure #2: Picture of materials needed for the with alpha galactosidase experiment Safety considerations: Be careful with the beakers, glass stirring rod, and test tubes, as they could break easily and can cause cuts in the skin. DCP: A scatter plot will be used to display how the amount of alpha galactosidase (measured in mL) in the bean solution affects the glucose concentration (measured in mg/dL) and error bars to show the standard deviation. A line of best fit will be used to show the relationship between the glucose concentration and the amount of alpha galactosidase.
The reason this experiment was performed was to see what surfactant does and really is. As said by Mallinath Chakraborty, “Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of specific lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, which is produced in the lungs by type II alveolar epithelial cells. The mixture is surface active and acts to decrease surface tension at the air–liquid interface of the alveoli.” Within our respiratory system our lungs have alveoli which contain a surfactant that help with water. Without the surfactant in the alveoli the lungs will collapse with water, you would basically suffocate by the water in your body without the alveoli producing the surfactant. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with milk varying from whole milk and