This organic molecule has a lot of critical roles in the human body. First off proteins come in four main structures and these structures are called primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. A primary protein structure is a linear arrangement of amino acids. Secondary structure has areas of folding or coiling and these are known as an alpha helices and pleated sheets. Tertiary structure has a three-dimensional structure, which is from non-covalent contact between the amino acids.
DNA is a negatively charged macro molecule. Protein interact with the DNA with its positively charged residues. Protein molecule interact with DNA by means of hydrogen bonding mainly. The hydrogen bonding play an essential role for many bio-molecular interaction. We can found this kind of interaction during protein-protein interaction, DNA protein interaction,
However, certain ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can also be biological catalysts, forming ribozymes. A very important example of a ribozyme is the ribosome, a large assembly of proteins and catalytically active RNA molecules responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. The structure of the active site is specific to the reaction that it catalyzes, with groups in the substrate
Principles of Human Physiology, 4e (Stanfield) Chapter 2 The Cell: Structure and Function 2.1 Multiple Choice Questions Figure 2.1 Using Figure 2.1, answer the following questions: 1) Which of the following nucleotide sequences accurately reflects the mRNA that would be produced from the double-stranded DNA pictured in Figure 2.1? A) TGTCTCACTGTCTTG B) ACAGAGTGACAGAAC C) UGUCUCACUGUCUUG D) ACAGAGUGACAGAAC E) GTTCTGTCACTCTGT Answer: C Diff: 5 Page Ref: 26 1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2) Based upon the number of nucleotides, how many amino acids will be formed from the DNA strand shown in Figure 2.1? A) 2 B) 3 C) 5 D) 7 E) 50 Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 42 3) In Figure 2.1, ________ between complementary bases hold the two strands
The structure of the nucleolus is divided into three main subcomportaments, which are the fibrillar center (FC), the dense fibrillar component (DFC) and the granular component (GC). In several studies it was possible to discover that the nucleolus contains most of the cell’s genetic material, structured as multiple long linear DNA molecules. The size of
These are formed by the polymerization of tubulins. Each tubulin molecule is a hetero dimer of two closely related and tightly associated subunits called α-tubulin and β-tubulin. Tubulins are highly conserved in all eukaryotes throughout the evolution. Each microtubule is typically composed of thirteen linear protofilaments of alternating α- and β-tubulins arranged in parallel to form a cylindrical structure. The microtubules are polar structure i.e.
Lactobacilli adhesins can be broadly classified according to their targets in the intestinal mucosa (i.e. mucus, extracellular matrix), based on their localization in the bacterial surface (i.e. surface layer proteins) and/or to the way how they are anchored to bacterial surface (i.e. sortase-dependent proteins, N/C terminal anchored). Extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises of variety of proteins like collagen, fibronectin, laminin along with mucins.
Additionally, there exists three domains of the enzyme namely C- terminal catalytic domain, an N- terminal regulatory domain and a tetramerization domain. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) acts as a cofactor for the enzyme activity. Hence, the regulatory action by PAH enzyme involves activation by the presence of the amino acid phenylalanine, inhibition by the cofactor Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) – dependent protein kinase helps in the phosphorylation of the amino acid serine that is present on the 16 position of the regulatory domain of the enzyme. This in turn helps in maintaining the activity of the enzyme by reducing the concentration of the phenylalanine
Computational structural biology (prediction of protein structure from sequence) 9. Biological databases and information technology (gene and protein databases) 10. Bioinformatics and computational biology (statistical data analysis strategies for molecular biology and in silico
The ABO system consists of four blood groups; A, B, AB and O. Individuals can be divided into these by the ABO blood group system; this is according to the different type of antigen that is present on the surfaces of their erythrocytes. (Ahmed, 2007) The antigens that determine ABO blood groups are oligosaccharide constituents of cell surface glycolipids and glycoprotein (Ahmed, 2007). The H antigen, which is located on chromosome 19, can be attached to type I or type II precursor chains. The H gene encodes an enzyme, L- fucosyl tranferase that adds L-fucose to the terminal galactose to form the H antigen (Ahmed, 2007).
The Diverse Parts of Macromolecules in Science There are four sorts of macromolecules that I am going to portray: Proteins, starches, lipids and nucleic corrosive. I will likewise depict the capacities and why they are critical in our bodies. Proteins Proteins are polymers of amino acids that are joined head-to-tail in a long chain that is then collapsed into a three-dimensional structure one of a kind to every sort of protein. The covalent linkage between two contiguous amino acids in a protein (or polypeptide) chain is known as a peptide bond. There are twenty amino acids that make up proteins.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.
The lac operon or lactose operon is essential for the transportation of lactose in E.coli. In the lac operon three structural genes, z, y and a genes, are transcribed into an mRNA molecule that synthesizes 3 proteins. The lac I gene is a protein produced by the regulatory gene.
Steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation has been used to apply external force on certain atoms in specific pulling direction in silico, which is perfect for pulling the knotted proteins. Sułkowska et al have stretched 20 proteins with a knotted topology by SMD simulations using a coarse-grained model. (105) When a stretching force is applied onto the two ends of a knotted protein, the knot shrinks and one end of the knot move along the polypeptide chain with sudden jumps. This is quite different from the tightening of a homopolymer in which the knot