Dried starch was powdered with morter and pestle and passed through 200 mm sieve and the powdered oxidized starch was kept in a polythene bag. Determination of carboxyl content Carboxyl content was determined by using the modified procedure of Chattopadhyay et al. (1997). First, 2g (dry basis) of oxidized taro starch was dispersed in 25 ml of 0.5M HCl. The starch slurry was stirred for 30 min followed by filtration through a medium porosity fritted glass funnel (we used bottman filter paper).
About 0.1 ml of the sample extract was added to a volumetric flask (10 ml) containing 7.5 ml of distilled water and 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 1 ml of 35 % Na2CO3 solution and dilute to 10 ml with distilled water. The mixture was shaken well and kept at room temperature for 30 min. A set of reference standard solutions of gallic acid (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml) were prepared. Absorbance for test and standard solutions were measured against the blank at 725 nm with an UV/Visible spectrophotometer. The tannin content was expressed in terms of mg of GAE /g of extract
It has been prepared with some modifications. ZP was prepared as follows: typically, 5 g ZrOCl2.8H2O was refluxed with 50 ml of 12 M H3PO4 at 100 °C for 24 h. The obtained precipitate was filtered off and washed with 0.1 M H3PO4 until free of chloride ion. Finally, the solid was washed with distilled water several times until the neutral pH and dried in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. The final product was ground into fine powders and confirmed by XRD (Fig.1). The ZPFe was prepared through an ion-exchange reaction[50, 51] (. 3 g of ZP was dispersed into the 50 ml deionized water at 50 °C.
A total of 0.1 ml of supernatant was added to cuvette containing 1.9 ml of 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 7). The reaction was started by the addition of 1 ml freshly prepared 30mM H2O2. The rate of decomposition of H2O2 was measured spectrophotometrically at 240 nm. Catalase values were expressed as n moles H2O2 consumed/min/mg protein. Measurement of lipid peroxidation TBARS, a measure of lipid per oxidation, was measured as described by Ohkawa .
Fatty acids methylation 50 mg of lipid was weighed in a glass tube. Of 5 ml of methanolic sulphuric acid (1ml concentrated. sulphuric acid and 100 ml methanol) and 2 ml of benzene were added then the tube was closed well and placed in water bath at 90ºC for 90 minutes. Tubes were cooled at ambient temperature and 8 ml of water and 5 ml petroleum ether were added then shaked strongly and separated out the ethereal layer in a dry tube. Evaporation process was done to provide
Then this mixture is immediately vigorously shaken to prevent the formation of lumps. After 2 hr, the thick suspension has been filtered off; the dark red cake was shaken for another 15 min with 75 ml mixture of equal volume of methanol and carbon tetrachloride and separated by filtration. The carbon tetrachloride phase was transferred to a separating funnel; added one volume of water and shaked well. After phase separation, the carbon tetrachloride phase was evaporated and the residue was diluted with about 2ml of benzene. Using a dropper, 1 ml of boiling methanol was added in portion, then crystals of crude lycopene were appeared immediately and the crystallization was completed by keeping the liquid at room temperature and ice bath, respectively.
A 100 ml of distilled water were carefully added and then neutralized with 1.0N NaOH to a pH 7.5-8.0. About 2 ml of leadacetate were added and the flask was left to stand for10 minutes. Then 2 grams of sodium oxalate were added to remove the excess of lead. Distilled water was again added to make the upto volume (250 ml). The solution was then filtrated and 50 ml of aliquoite is taken in 250 ml volumetric flask.
Sample (1 g) was soaked in a mixture of 200 mL of water and 10 mL of orthophosphoric acid. The mixture was left 12 h to release all bounded hydrocyanic acid. Antibumping agents were added, the solution distilled and the distillate measured. A volume of 10 mL of distillate was taken into a conical flask and diluted with 20 mL of water, 4 mL of 6 M ammonia and 1 mL 5 % potassium iodide. The mixture was titrated with 0.02 M silver nitrate until a faint but permanent turbidity was obtained.
The samples were stored in polythene bags and were labeled. The samples were then washed twice with 4% (w/v) detergent solution and twice rinsed with distilled water to remove exogenous contamination. The samples were dried overnight in an oven at 50 °C and cooled to 25 °C in a desiccator containing desiccant silica gel. A weighed portion about 1 g of the samples was treated with 8 ml of concentrated nitric acid (65%) and heated 10 min at 80 °C and was cooled to 25 °C. Then, 5.0 ml of perchloric acid was added to samples with subsequent heating until white dense fumes evolved.
Distribute the test specimen as evenly as practicable to a depth of about 5mm generally and not more than 10mm in the case of bulky materials. Place the loaded bottle in the drying chamber (LOD Oven) by removing the stopper and leaving it also in the chamber. Dry the test specimen at the temperature and for the time specified. Note: The temperature specified in the monograph is to be regarded as being within the range of + 20°C of the stated figure. In an oven within a specified temperature