The spread of Calvinism was a challenge to the Roman Catholic Church which led to many wars across Europe. John Calvin also inspired John Knox who was a Calvinist, John Knox returned to Scotland with great ideas which led to him setting up the Presbyterian Church and overthrowing the Catholic Queen. This summarizes how John Calvin had a great impact on the Reformation period religiously. In the Renaissance there were many great impacts, such as Johannes Gutenberg and his printing press, the Medici family, or
(Sommerville) Mary was the prime Catholic candidate for the throne of England while losing popularity in her own country because she was a Catholic monarch in a country that was slowly slipping into Protestantism. (Sommerville) But from birth, they were threats to each other. “Elizabeth’s secretary, William Cecil, realised that as long as Mary lived, this quarrel now begun, is undoubtedly like to be a perpetual encumbrance of this kingdom: When the French king died in July 1559, 15-year-old Francois became King of France- with Mary, aged 16, as his queen consort. The threat to Elizabeth grew even greater.”
People began to assert themselves against blind faith and useless religious rituals and began to feel that they could reach God without the intermediary of a priest. Instead of one Pope, two Popes began to be elected one by the French Cardinals and the other by the Italian Cardinals. Solution: With recognition of the reformers criticism and acceptance of their ideology Protestants were able to put their beliefs on display in art.
Many of the people of England had been dissatisfied with the Catholic church. The citizens of England believed that the Catholic Church 's officials were abusing their power for political gain. Plus, many members of Henry VIII 's court saw a potential split from the Catholic church as politically advantageous. One of the major effects on England after Henry VIII broke from the Catholic church was the diffusing of the religious power in England that had previously been
Martin Luther was a Protestant reformer who criticized the Church’s ideas of selling indulgences in 1517 (Textbook). Luther believed that people could only be saved through faith in God. Protestantism encouraged people to choose their own religious beliefs, that led to the formation of Calvinist, Anglican, and Presbyterian churches alongside the Lutheran church, which had already existed. Luther nailed his
Father Garnet wrote A Treatise of Equivocation to tell Catholics how to conceal their faith (Trial). Shakespeare alludes to Father Garnet in Macbeth with the Porter. The Porter drunkenly speaks of the people who will greet you at the gates of hell, "Faith, here's an equivocator/that could swear in both the scales against either scale..." (Shakespeare II.ii. 7-8) Father Garnet also insisted he lied for the conspirators for God's sake, to which the Porter speaks of also in Macbeth (Huntley).The Porter describes the equivocator, "Who committed treason enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to heaven.
Because of this reason, the CR was created mainly for religious reasons. The CR was intended to fight back against the PR. In order to do so, the Council of Trent, who acted as the center of the CR by meeting on and off throughout the years, also had to reform the Church itself in order to stop the corruption that had allowed the PR to be created in the 1st place. This is why the CR could also be called the Cath.
In the 1st century, Christianity spread throughout Rome causing differing views on the religion. At first Christianity was disapproved of by the upper class, then in later years it was embraced. The spread of Christianity throughout Rome eventually caused Rome to split and lead to the fall of the Roman empire. Christianity challenged the government, believing in a higher power then the Emperor. With this mindset, the government feared for it’s future in Rome and it was disapproved of, much like the Tang Emperor Wu in document 6, who stated that it will cause disorder in society.
The events that took place leading up to the witch trials were Bacon’s Rebellion, The Little ice age, and the puritan control of the church and state. Bacon’s rebellion was a rebellion in Virginia against Governor William Berkeley for his failure to address the colonists safety. The Little ice age was a very religious time for the settlers, who thought they were being punished by God. Puritan control of the church and state led people to believe that men were superior and women were evil beings. The witch trials of 1692 were not only motivated by the stringent restrictions of the Puritan faith, but also by the misogynistic social structure that provoked mass hysteria among the sexes.
The glorious revolution signified a key step into the idea democracy. It showed the colonist that a leader who they feel is corrupt or unfit can be replaced. Although this did not immediately make the colonies fight for independence from England, it did create a revolutionary spirit the
Puritanism was a religious movement that was created after the Church of England’s insufficient reform. This occurred after King Henry VIII transformed the the Church of Rome into the state Church of England. This change was inadequate and left many people dissatisfied with the newly reformed church. As of this, a popular group of Puritans were formed in the late 16th centaury to live a life closer to God. This group of radicals were persecuted for their overly religious ways and were forced to relocate to North America.
During the Tudor dynasty a diverse range of conflicts and rebellions occurred. After Henry VIII breached with Rome in 1533 the threat of religion increased leading to multiple revolts. This resulted Elizabeth, the last monarch of the Tudors, left to overcome various problems which threatened the Queen such as; the religious issues caused by the Spanish Armada linking with the rebellions she had to also overcome, the Northern Rebellion, and finally foreign policy, threatened by the Anglo Spanish relations causing great threats for the Virgin Queen. However, Elizabeth did overcome religious threats by the end of her reign, despite the unstable country she was left in by her rebellious sister Mary, her father Henry VIII and grandfather Henry VII,
Ever since the Protestant Reformation started in sixteenth century Germany, Europe was arguably no longer the same. The revival of Biblical theology had led to Western Christendom splitting into various denominations of the Christian faith, with Protestant sects and other Orthodox Churches. Despite the Church of Rome still holding remarkable power and influence through its Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire, the Pope could no longer be considered as the sole religious authority in Europe. Contrary to popular opinion, this revolution cannot be solely credited to Martin Luther and his theological writings, but rather to a chain of events that had, was and will happen during the century. The transformations in Europe instead was key to the
He followed her every word to get closer to the crown, but one: James married Anne, the crowned princess of Denmark, whereas Elizabeth wanted to choose his wife. On Elizabeth’s deathbed, she crowned James the king of England. After this James was as happy as could be, whereas the people were skeptical. Because he was Mary’s son, the Catholics thought that he would stop their persecution and side with their religion, and the Puritans thought he would side with the Catholic religion as well. Because of this, Puritans were saying that James was a corrupt, lazy, coward to try to discredit him as a ruler.
The King of England, Henry VIII, noted the anger and began a reform in the Catholic Church. He took the Church in Rome and reformed it. He changed some of the policies and renamed it the Church of England. However, some felt that the reform did not go deep enough. They were still upset.