Detection of listeria spp Contamination of food and dairy products with Listeria is the major cause of foodborne disease in human. Since researchers have found out that listeria is a foodborne pathogen, there is a continuous challenge on isolation of bacteria from food and other samples . The primary studies indicated that Listeria is able to grow at low temperature so researchers used this phenomenon for isolation of bacteria from clinical samples by culturing for a long time in 4oC but this method could not differentiate the injured listeria cells which cannot survive and grow at stress condition. Using time consuming enrichment step and lack of differentiation of damaged listeria should be taken into consideration, as the results
It is so much to be done here in the United States that we are not yet safe. The Center of Disease Control (CDC) is working together with global health security to help develop health systems so that they can prevent epidemics and respond quickly and effectively. Global Health Security is in place to provide security from the threat of infectious diseases. All it will take is for a disease to surface somewhere and the threat of that disease can become global through travel, spread of new microbes, and the release of dangerous microbes intentionally or not. There are new threats emerging now as we speak like the flu and new strands of that vaccine are available.
Oxford, United Kingdom: Perganom Press. Fürstenberg-Hägg, J., Zagrobelny, M., & Bak, S. (2013). Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(5), 10242–10297. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140510242 Kant, M. R., Jonckheere, W., Knegt, B., Lemos, F., Liu, J., Schimmel, B. C. J., … Alba, J. M. (2015).
Bacteria is a serious issue people all around the world face today, and it is an issue that needs to be discussed. Bacteria is smart and dangerous. It has the ability to change into diffrent forms. In fact, according to article "Doctors Enlisted to Turn the Tide on Antibiotic Resistance" and "A Spray That Stops Bacteria From Talking to Each Other Could Reduce Dependence on Antibiotics" some microbes are changing faster than antimicrobials can kill them. As a result, people can contract a bacterial infection that has no cure.
Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Introduction Until recently, Antibiotics are medicines used to avoid and give bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria alteration in comeback to the use of these medicines. Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant. Bacteria could infect humans and animals, and the infections they purpose are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance leads to greater medical costs, long hospital stays, and increased mortality.
Solubility Enhancement by Chemical Modification Method Abstract Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system. It is an important parameters to achieve optimum concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired pharmacological response. Oral route is the most desirable and preferred method of administering therapeutic agents for their systemic effects, but poor solubility of drug major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities. About 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry suffer from formulation difficulties related to their water insolubility. For the absorption of any drug, the drug must be present in its chemical
Since the development of the germ theory, many scientists, working with plant and animal infecting microbes, have focused their research efforts on the microbes that cause disease (Ainsworth, 1981). Endophytes (fungi and/or bacteria that live within the tissues of plants) largely appear to be the inverse of plant pathogens since generally they represent cryptic benign infections of healthy plants. The term endophyte (Gr. endon, within; phyton, plant) was first coined by De Bary (De Bary, 1866) and an endophyte is a bacterial or fungal microorganism, which spends the whole or part of its life cycle colonizing inter- and/or intra-cellularly inside the healthy tissues of the host plant, typically causing no apparent symptoms of disease (Wilson,
The opioid epidemic has grown to become a national health problem signifies that pharmacists need to be active in preventing the abuse of common painkiller medication. This epidemic, if left untreated, will have a major impact on future generations, even worse than the present. Pharmacists need to realize that the opioid crisis is more critical to their careers as well. In Boston there were fourteen robberies committed at a pharmacy just for opioid medication which reflects how popular they are in the streets, which means that pharmacists need to be extremely careful (Butterfield). Pharmacists are one of the most likely targets to get opioids simply because they have them behind the counters.