Inducing Prodigiosin Transposon mutagenesis in Serratia Marcescens Introduction Serratia Marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, mainly of healthcare facilities but can also be found in many diverse environments. Serratia is a gram negative bacteria which can give it innate resistance to certain antibiotics, especially those that target peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis, due to its outer membrane. In an environment with different microorganisms competing for food Serratia holds a component that gives it another selective advantage. The bacteria contains a red pigment called prodigiosin, that has antibacterial, antifungal, and even antiprotozoal activity. The pigment is produced due to quorum sensing of bacteria, when an appropriate level of N-hex
Harman et al., (2004a) reported that the induction of localized or systemic resistance is a critical issue for plant disease control by Trichoderma spp. As a consequence disease control through root-colonizing Trichoderma spp. entails a complex interaction among the host plant, the pathogen, the biocontrol agent and numerous environmental factors(Harman, 2004a; Hoitink, et al., 2006; Alfano et al.,
The development of resistance to all kinds of antibiotics in the sensitive bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The astonishing effects of antibiotics and origin of the genes associated with resistance has been a long mystery. There is growing evidence that the genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transformed to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics. INTRODUCTION Antibiotics are organic substances produced by microorganisms,
Infectious Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium species that is widely suspected to contribute to the development of acne, but its exact role in this process is not entirely clear. There are specific sub-strains of P. acnes associated with normal skin and others with long-term acne. It is unclear whether these undesirable strains evolve on-site or are acquired, or possibly both depending on the person. These strains either have the capability of changing, perpetuating, or adapting to, the abnormal cycle of inflammation, oil production, and inadequate sloughing of acne
Recent guidelines for treatment of gonorrhea recommends the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. Monitoring and investigation of gonorrhea have become essential due to the emergence and spread of multi drug resistant and cephalosporin resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Routine clinical laboratories need to be alert for the detection of such strain, so that plans for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It is essential to know the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is
In the human history, numerous infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged. The emerging infectious diseases and their basic causes present a threat to the stability of the nations worldwide. Thus, the preparedness for the known and unknown infectious diseases will be a top priority for our public health systems (Gupta et al., 2012). Infectious diseases are caused due to a complex interaction between the pathogen (that is, disease causing agent or infectious agent), host and the environment. There are five major types of infectious agents: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths.
Microbiome studies worldwide have been started with the aim of understanding the function that these symbionts play and their effect on human health[2, 3]. Specifying the definition of the human microbiome has been complicated by confusion about terminology: for example, “microbiota” (the microbial taxa associated with humans) and “microbiome” (the catalogue of these microbes and their genes) are often used interchangeably. In addition, the term “metagenomics” originally referred to the characterization of total DNA, although now it is increasingly being applied to studies of marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene. More fundamentally, however, new findings are leading us to question the concepts that are central to establishing the definition of the human microbiome, such as the stability of an individual's microbiome, the definition of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) that make up the microbiota, and whether a person has one microbiome or many. In this review, we cover progress towards defining the human microbiome in these different
project in science 7 second quarter Joshua v. llana 7 fluorine Submitted to: Sir micheal hayag Table of contents Page title Page number Introduction Page # 1 Body system Page # 2-5 5 communicable diseases Page # 6-10 prevention Page # 11-12 Introduction: Immunity is a state of a specific resistance to infection. Specific resistance is directed against a particular type of microorganism and is a one of the most important characteristic of the immunity. The Immune System is a system of biological structures that processes in an organism that protects in diseases. It is functioning properly if it has a wide variety of agents known as pathogens from the viruses and parasite worms, and known them from the organisms healthy tissue.
coli. (2014) Higher selection strength occurs when a physician prescribes a patient with a high dose of antibiotics. The dose is either determined to be high or low depend on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is the amount of the drug required to inhibit the visible growth of the bacteria causing the infection. When a health care provider treats a bacteria infection with a dose that will provide a high selection environment the rate of mutations will increase. These mutations will lead to resistance, cross-resistance, and susceptibility to antibiotic, however the antibiotic will kill any bacteria with mutation making them susceptible, but the bacteria with resistant and cross-resistant mutations will survive the antibiotic doses and grow to repopulation the
However HIV is an ever evolving virus that can develop resistance to drugs, thus developing new HIV treatment is extremely complex and expensive. This paper focuses on the strategies used in the prevention of the HIV-1 infection. It is crucial to understand the life cycle and modes of transmission of HIV in order to develop or improve current treatments. The life cycle, modes of transmission and vaccines will be briefly presented followed by discussions, incorporating advantages and disadvantages, of the various preventative measures taken against