Unknown #10 produced no identifiable macroscopic characteristics as a broth, so the first step was to Gram stain a loopful to determine the microscopic characteristics. Gram staining not only helped identify Unknown #10’s microscopic morphology but it also helped ensure the specimen was a pure culture—no other bacteria were visible when Unknown #10 was Gram stained and observed under the microscope. Unknown #10’s key microscopic morphology was that it was a very small, Gram negative bacillus. Though bacilli can possibly form endospores, no empty white centers were visible which suggested that Unknown #10 was not an endospore forming bacteria. No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive.
The purpose of this lab report is to employ a myriad of skills, tools and, methods learned throughout this semester to perform the appropriate tests for the identification of the assigned unknown bacteria. Add more background information here!!! The most important tools and techniques used during this identification include aseptic technique, microscopic examination and, the use of selective and differential media. Aseptic technique is an important tool for microbiologists. It is imperative that aseptic technique is maintained throughout the length of any test to avoid any cross-contamination that may lead to inaccurate results.
For the unknown phase two project, I was assigned unknown number one. After many tests, I came to the conclusion that my unknown was Acinetobacter baumannii. It had cultural characteristics of yellow or clear colony pigmentation, smooth and translucent surface, circular form, smooth margin, and flat elevation. The unknown’s broth properties included a ring, turbidity, and sediment.
According to the series of test that my group ran for our unknown specimen, we had a match with the bacteria known as Alcaligenes Faecalis. This bacterium belongs to one of the major group of gram-negative bacteria (Phylum Proteobacteria). Alcaligenes Faecalis (Genus, species) is a rod shaped (bacillus), 0.5-1.2 x 1.0-3.0 µm, round with scalloped margin (colony configuration growth), motile (with one to nine peritrichous flagella), gram-negative, non-fermentative bacteria, obligate aerobic, having oxygen as the principal terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain (ETC). We consider we have a match with the species Alcaligenes Faecalis because of the following reasons: Fermentation tests performed (Durham sugars) were negative, which indicate that our bacteria use a different metabolic means for growth (non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria).
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
There are numerous ways from avoiding being infected by E. coli bacteria. The basis is to know how it is spread. Studies show that E. coli infections are food-borne. Having the organism live in the lower digestive tract makes the possible transmission between animals and humans. It happens when there is direct contact with animal infected by the bacteria or through consumption of contaminated products during food processing.
Klebsiella pneumonia or also known as Friedlanders bacillus is a disease that is found in humans and animals. The genus is named after Edwin Klebs a 19th century German Microbiologist. Klebsiella forms in soil and the water on plants. K. pneumonia is found in the digestive and respiratory systems causing lobar pneumonia, meningitis if spread into the blood stream, urinary tract infections, and would infections. Klebsiella is part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and belongs to the genus Klebsiella.
The scalp is covered with bleached blond hair. The eyes are blue. The fixed lividitv is noted in the face, neck, chest, upper portions of arms and the right side of the abdomen. The faint lividity which disappears upon pressure is noted in the back and posterior aspect of the arms and legs. A slight ecchymotic area is noted in the left hip and left side of lower back.
They are somewhat purplish-brownish discolorations, serpiginous, oval in shape, about a 1/4 of an inch to a 1/2 inch in size. This may be easy bruisability because it is so flat, but I am hard pressed to make a diagnosis. They are non-itchy, and I rather doubt that he has a drug allergy because of this. He has been told by his ophthalmologist that he has dry eyes, but he does not have a dry mouth, so Sjögren syndrome does not seem likely.
Enterobacteriaceae - Enterobacteriacaea is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are usually motile and consist of saprophytes and parasites of worldwide distribution. They can be found in soil, water, plants and animals. Q2I: Mutation - Mutation is an inheritable change in the base sequence of the genome of an organism. Question Set 3: Q3A: The authors hypothesized that colistin resistance was spreading by horizontal gene transfer as opposed to mutation.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa.) is widely distributed in nature, and it is typically found in moist environments including hospitals. We can also found it in water and soil. P.aeruginosa can presents in small numbers in gut and skin as normal flora, but it can cause different types of infection wither in humans, animals ,or plants. It is primarily nosocomial pathogen and opportunistic bacteria, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Biochemical tests are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Bacterial physiology differs from one species to the other. These differences in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, production of certain enzymes and ability to utilize a particular compound help them to be identified by the biochemical tests. Gram’s stain was originally devised by histologist Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple, while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink when subjected to Gram staining.
INTRODUCTION: A healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) or nosocomial infection is defined as any infection acquired by hospital environment and also by a healthcare worker, or which is acquired by a healthcare worker in the course of their duties. (1) According to the Health and Social Care Act 2008 that prevention and control of nosocomial infection should be part of everyday practice and applied consistently by everyone.(2) Nosocomial infections are responsible to increase the morbidity and mortality ratio in hospitals as the health workers and medical staff like doctors, surgeons, nurses carry transmissible agents on their bodies and clothes mainly involve white coats or lab coats, nurse’s uniforms and other hospital garments.(3)